Enlightenment Philosophy of Moral Philosophy

18-19. As a result of the moral consequences of the social events experienced, the rational orientation, which has the general character of the 16th century philosophy, inevitably turned to the field of morality.

Philosophers of this period; they tend to understand and interpret morality with reason and spread their thoughts from this point. Among these  , the views of Jeremia Bentham  and  Immanuel Kant are important.

Kant, on the other hand, deals with morality in the practical field and tries to explain it through reason. He, like Bentham and many other thinkers, tries not to do so with human nature, but with the judgments of reason. In other words, it acts from the judgments and concepts of morality. The first task in this way is to analyze the concept of “good will isten. Kant; with the concept of good will, he understands the good will that accompanies human actions that can always be considered right. Human; There is good will there if he wanted the good, in full, sincere decision. Kant does not evaluate morality and good according to the purpose behind them, not according to the outcome of the actions. It differs in this respect from morally utilitarian thinkers such as Bentham.

Kant tries to develop good will by using the concept of “homework yönelik for morality. According to him, homework is the orders given by the conscience, sincerely and consciously of the action that one takes on his own will. It is the person and his conscience that determines the assignment. Homework is the principle of universal morality that applies to all people but does not depend on anyone’s wishes and desires.

According to Kant, human actions are either contrary to or appropriate to duty. It would be wrong to assert that any behavior deemed appropriate for the assignment is out of the assignment. For example, the fact that a shopkeeper does not deceive self-shoppers is apparently a good behavior. If he did this with the idea of ​​not losing customers in the long term, this behavior does not result from homework. If he did this thinking that it was unethical to deceive others, it stems from the task. Kant proposes three moral principles. These are also known as Kant’s maxims.

Bentham predicts morality in practice. He says that man is a person who, by nature, escapes pain and pursues “pleasure”. He argues that this action, when done consciously with reason, will give man the right to be virtuous. One who weighs pleasure in the face of pain and weighs it in the face of pleasure; whichever one sees the most benefit, should turn to it. Bentham states that sometimes it may be necessary to give up small pleasures for great pleasures or to give up small pleasures to escape great sufferings. According to him, happiness, people choose their own actions with the mind.

According to Bentham, evil comes from the wrong choice of man. A person who cannot account for enough between pleasure and pain causes evil to emerge. He wanted to be happy, but he did not keep the account. According to him, happiness is about human environment. It is the right action to the benefit of the majority, pleasant and pleasing.

Kant’s Maksim

– davran Act so that the principle of behavior can be accepted as a universal law. ”

– davran Act not in a way that sees humanity as a tool in yourself and others, but as a goal. Onu

– davran Always behave in such a way that you will act as a universal legislator of your intelligent will. ”

These maxims are the principles that enable both the person to behave in accordance with the task and the behavior of the person to leave the homework. If a person acts in accordance with these principles, he will have acted appropriately.

Prepared by:
  Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source:  Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Philosophy Textbook

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