History of 20th Century Philosophy
The philosophy of the 20th century covers the traditions of thought and philosophical movements that started and continued from the late 19th century to the present day. Just as the philosophy of each era is interacting with its own social, cultural and political conditions, 20th century philosophy is influenced by its own political and social developments.
Political events of the age, cultural and technological developments, new results in the scientific field, emerging new thought tendencies, questioning approaches towards science, attempts to question the mind, interest in language, discussions on the concept of the subject, a new dimension the problem of knowledge, sexuality, alienation and power. The majority of the thinkers of this age expressed their theoretical problems and sought answers.
It seems almost impossible to compile the 20th century in the history of Western philosophy without leaving anything out. It is also an issue which subheadings should be included in a review aimed at presenting the last century. Unlike the past centuries, we are faced with a multitude of branching and snagging, developing in the subspecialty fields, in contrast with them, in contrast with them, with intrinsic thinking methods and content that outweigh individuality.
Particularly in the second period of the 20th century, there are also approaches to the philosophy itself, whose traces have been encountered in the past, but which are much more critical and destructive.
We should also state that we are open to your warnings about the names who are not present or do not deserve to be present here, since we do not find the limits and competence to evaluate the thinkers who are still alive today and who deserve to be included in the pages of the history of philosophy.
We must not ignore that thought is within the reality of life and related to what is happening. This relationship is established in different thinking procedures and layers of existence. Thinking will move in the field of transcendence, as well as attempting to base the fictionalities between subjects by claiming objectivity. On the other hand, thought attempts to analyze, understand, interpret, ground, transform life, or put forward escape options. Considering this aspect, it is possible to make sense of contemporary philosophies by evaluating them in their historical contexts (and in the biographies of thinkers).
In the 20th century, the mad run of western-centered humanity reached its peak, especially in the field of science and technology. In the period of their emergence, the sciences guided by philosophy became in a way that shook the existential foundations of philosophy in the environment of our time.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the depressive atmosphere of the end of the 19th century turned into an atmosphere of relative optimism under the influence of the consumerist economy. However, the conditions of competition and expansionist policies of the period caused conflicts that ended with war. The two largest wars the world had ever seen, followed by an unarmed war, swept away all the promises of the century. Mass wars, which led to great suffering, were replaced ironically by the peace of terror of the weapons of mass destruction. But local and regional wars of various sizes never ended. The softening that began in the last quarter of the century created a series of new political problems that resulted in the disintegration of the Soviet Union. Ethnic-based conflicts caused great suffering during the redrawing of borders.
While advances in communication, transportation, medicine, space technology and physics have a positive impact on the aspects of human life, the environmental problems caused by mass production became visible at the end of the century. Warming, environmental pollution, hunger, and major accidents leading to environmental pollution have caused new problems in the dimensions beyond the borders.
The century ended with the discourses of “new world order..
The developments and changes in the field of art, which is another dimension of the meaning and description of life, can be evaluated by considering the general view that we try to give in general terms. The relationship between art and thought should also be considered within the same framework.
Yazar The writers, painters, musicians, architects, who did not want to be the repetition of their predecessors, who wanted to create the art of the changing world, broke the chain of tradition and acted with the pioneering understanding of art in the testimonies of the era. Iy In consecutive pioneering waves, form became one of the most important components of the content.
Significant Currents of Thought:
– What is analytical philosophy?
– What is language philosophy?
– What is existentialism?
– What is logical positivism?
– What is nihilism?
– What is phenomenology?
– What is structuralism?
– What is critical theory?
Important Persons of the Period:
Who is Henry Bergson? Who is Gottlob Frege? Who is Edmund Husserl? Who is Bertrand Russell? Who is George Edward Moore? Who is Ernst Cassirer? Who is Albert Schweitzer? Who is Oswald Spengler? Who is Ludwig von Mises? Who is Moritz Schlick? Who is Jose Ortega y Gasset? Who is Gaston Bachelard? Who is Ernst Bloch? Who is Alain Badiou?