History of Islamic Philosophy in the Middle Ages
Over the course of several hundred years after the birth of Islam, Muslims dominated many of the great centers of thought in the ancient world. If their political authority was used to destroy the old focal points of thought, Muslims would undoubtedly have been significantly successful.
However, they preferred to exploit the intellectual wealth of ancient civilizations, and Islamic military conquests were followed by an enthusiastic intellectual effort to absorb the wisdom accumulations of the old world. Islamic thinkers, in particular, attempted to introduce the major philosophy classics of the ancient Greek civilization into Arabic. This process, which generally developed under the auspices of the great politicians, resulted in the adoption of an original and rooted place in Islamic thought by the concepts and methods of philosophy. Through this translation movement, Islamic thinkers who met the impressive views of the great Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle soon found themselves in tough debates on the nature of the relationship between religion and philosophy. This discussion also believes in reason,
Islamic thinkers were facing roughly the same intellectual problems with their Christian counterparts in the West. Islamic thinkers, just like the Christian thinkers, felt the necessity to justify God’s existence, oneness, and creative activity by reasoning. In addition, God’s relationship with the universe, the situation of the human will against the Divine will, how the evils on earth can be connected with the absolute good of God, what the fate of the human soul will be after the death, how the resurrection of the universe, what the truth of the world, what the truth of the world in a great extent. they discussed with intellectual competence and tried to solve these problems in a way that would convince every human mind that worked correctly.
Through these fruitful intellectual efforts, the Islamic world has raised many great thinkers such as Kindi, Razi, Ibn Sina, Farabi, Ibn Khaldun, Ghazali, Ibn Rushd, who profoundly influenced Western thought in a short period of time (9th-12th centuries) in terms of human history. He has produced many important works in almost every field of science, some of which are among the first and pioneering examples of his kind. In this way, Arabic became the lingua franc of the period (a common language for people who speak different languages), and it became so important to tell an important thirteenth century thinker like Roger Bacon that he could not deal effectively with science and philosophy. For all these reasons, the two-to-three-hundred-year period should be regarded as one of the rare golden ages of human history.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook