History of Medieval Philosophy

The Middle Ages is an extremely important and rich period for the history of philosophy.

Although it was formerly called the dark period, thanks to the increasing interest in the last fifty years, the Medieval Philosophy is now a brighter period. Temporarily we can start Medieval Philosophy with Augustine (354-430). This term, Thomas Iohannes (1589-1644). It is possible to say that there are many similarities between the first and the second philosophically and theology. In other words, the philosophical issues dealt with in this millennium have been scrutinized with the rigor of inheritance.

Perhaps the most important name in the history of philosophy, Plato BC. He died in 348. For some time after his death Aristotle was influential on Greek philosophy. However, the understanding that Greek philosophy was influential and often depicted pagan thought ended in about the third century. In other words, a period under the influence of a great master such as Plato, this time the name of his name and thought to be the founder of Plotinos’un Yeniplatoncuğunu left.

One of the most important achievements of Plotinos, who was born in Egypt in 204 or 205, possibly in Lycopolis, was his taking lessons from Ammonius Saccas. Plotinos, who succeeded in deeply influencing the history of philosophy after him, tried to bring together the Greek speculative thought on the one hand and the basic principles of Christianity on the other and achieved a serious success in this field. Under the influence of Christianity in the Middle East, which was inhabited in a different way, the philosophy was transformed into a whole concept of being, a new concept which was not used before. The idea of ​​io creation mayan (creatio), which was not previously included in Greek philosophy, took its place in the form of God with the help of Platonic terminology and this time with absolute power.

The new philosophical understanding thus emerged, despite the serious weight of Christianity, nevertheless maintained its basic principles and concerns. The neo-Platonist school and its followers maintained an understanding that at the same time severely preserved ancient Greek philosophy. Ancient Greek remains important, and philosophy works were largely written in Greek. Even the philosophers in Rome were studying Greek in Athens, writing their work in Greek. Ancient Greek was like a vein that kept Greek philosophy alive.

However, education was able to continue with the basic works of some families and some monastery libraries in remote corners. Thanks to this education, names such as Augustinus and Boethius emerged and they began to shape Medieval philosophy with their works. All of these are Christian. Starting in the second century, they all tried to rationalize the faith of Christianity and used philosophy for this cause. This understanding, which initially sees philosophy as a tool, has evolved over time and aimed at such a philosophy that it will reveal important achievements in the most fundamental areas of philosophy.

In this respect, medieval philosophy did not assume the task of transferring only Ancient Greek philosophy to modern philosophy. Another important task of his was to produce modern philosophy by differentiating his legacy from Ancient Greek philosophy through his interpretation style. An important issue to remember is that Descartes, who was considered the initiator of modern philosophy, was actually trained in a medieval institution. Descartes, who studied at the Jesuit-founded La Fleche, discovered analytical geometry and tried to rebuild speculative philosophy. As Descartes complained of the inadequacies of medieval philosophy, some also claimed that he did not know medieval philosophy well enough. Another important idea on this issue comes from Betül Çotuksöken, who started the studies of the Middle Ages philosophy in our country. According to that; both Augustine and Anselmus Descartes. From the start naïve Although it appears to reject an attitude, Descartes is located scholastics in the intellectual background. “(Betul Çotuksöken,” Anselm’s Ontological God Proving and the Early Modern Philosophy (Descartes) Place “, II. Turkey Philosophy, Logic and History of Science Symposium ( 11-13 November 1987) -Ayri Edition-, Izmir: Ege University Faculty of Letters Publications, TY, p. 53). On The Ontological Proof of God and Its Place in New Age Philosophy (Descartes) ”, II. Turkey Philosophy, Logic and History of Science Symposium (11-13 November 1987) -Separate printing-, İzmir: Ege University Faculty Publications, TY, p. 53). On The Ontological Proof of God and Its Place in New Age Philosophy (Descartes) ”, II. Turkey Philosophy, Logic and History of Science Symposium (11-13 November 1987) -Separate printing-, İzmir: Ege University Faculty Publications, TY, p. 53).

Medieval philosophy thus points to a period in which in many respects it is necessary to focus. In order to understand this philosophy, as can be easily understood from the above mentioned, on the one hand Ancient Greek philosophy-mainly the thoughts of Plato and Aristotle-on the other hand, modern philosophy must be well understood. Otherwise, the problems and problems in the continuity of philosophy will become inevitable.

Medieval philosophy covers the period from the end of the antiquity philosophy to the beginning of modern thought. BUSINESS. From the 2nd to the late 15th century; It is considered as the period from the beginning of the 16th century until the Renaissance. This period has its own characteristics in terms of the history of philosophy. In many books of history of philosophy, philosophy is ignored in the Middle Ages, or it is argued that philosophy is also darkened due to the evaluation of the Middle Ages as a dark age. In addition, there are also studies on the history of philosophy which accept the existence of philosophy in the Middle Ages and explain the specific characteristics of this philosophy.

General trends of medieval philosophy

The Middle Ages was a very important and rich period in the history of philosophy and was initiated temporarily with Augustinus (354-430). Thomas Iohannes (1589-1644). The philosophical issues dealt with in this millennium have been scrutinized with the rigor of inheritance. Medieval philosophy is an attempt to reconcile the principles of Christianity with philosophy and rationalism in the most general sense. After Plato’s death, the Yeniplatonian school and its followers maintained an understanding that preserved the philosophy of Ancient Greece. Ancient Greek remains important, and philosophy works were largely written in Greek. Europe was shaken by a massive barbarian attack and invasion from the fourth century onwards. Many Greek texts disappeared. Most or all of the Latin translations of Greek texts were destroyed. However, education was able to continue with the basic works of some families and some monastery libraries in remote corners. Thanks to this education, names such as Augustinus and Boethius emerged and they began to shape Medieval philosophy with their works. All of these are Christian. Starting in the second century, they all tried to rationalize the faith of Christianity and used philosophy for this cause. In this respect, medieval philosophy did not assume the task of transferring only Ancient Greek philosophy to modern philosophy. Therefore, in order to understand the medieval philosophy, on the one hand the ancient Greek philosophy – the ideas of Plato and Aristotle in particular – on the other hand, modern philosophy must be well understood.

Outline of Medieval Philosophy:

–  What are the general characteristics of medieval philosophy?
–  Who is Augustinus?
–  Who is Manlius Severinus Boethius?
–  Who is Anselmus?
–  Who is Pierre Abelardus?
–  Who is Ioannes Duns Scotus?
–  Who’s Boethius Dacus?
–  Who’s Francisco Suarez?
–  What is the Latin Ibn Rushdie?
–  Who is Ioannes Scotus Eriugena?
–  Who’s Thomas Aquinas?
–  Who’s Roger Bacon?
–  Who’s Bonaventura?
–  Who is Albertus Magnus?
–  Who is Sigerus de Brabant?
–  Who’s William of Ockham?
–  Who is Nicolaus Cusanus?
–  History of Islamic philosophy in the Middle Ages
–  Christian philosophy
–  Islamic philosophy

Important Persons of the Period:

–  Who are the Gnostics? , –  Who is Augustinus? , –  Who is Anselmus? , –  Who is Albertus Magnus? , –  Who is Aquinalu? , –  William Ockham (Xenon) Who is?

Please also see:

–  History of Medieval Philosophy, –  What is Christian Philosophy? , –  What is Islamic Philosophy? , –  What are the Middle Ages Philosophy Traditions? , –  What is Scholastic Philosophy? , –  What is the Controversy?

Prepared by:  Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source:  Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook

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