In the beginning we can say that philosophy and science are intertwined, and many of the first great philosophers are also scientists.
For example; Thales (Tales, 625-545 BC) is a mathematician, Archymedes (Archimedes) is a physicist. Because of this close relationship between philosophy and science, there have also been those who describe philosophy as the mother of the sciences .
The departure of science from philosophy began with mathematics. Then the natural sciences and finally the social sciences were separated from philosophy. The disciplines that determine their original field, method and purpose are separated from the philosophy. Despite this distinction, this relationship between science and philosophy is not at the same level, but it continues to this day. From the close relationship of these two fields of knowledge , a discipline called philosophy of science has emerged.
Philosophy and science have similar and different characteristics. Similar characteristics can be stated as follows: There is a parallel between philosophy and science in terms of purpose. Both are not content with ready-made and stereotyped knowledge, but they try to understand, explain and interpret the truths in an effective and critical manner. They both rigorously use the principles of logic such as identity, contradiction, and the impossibility of the third state. In both, the aim is to understand the world and human life.
There are also important differences between philosophy and science. These differences are in terms of subject and method. Science is based on observable phenomena with general validity. Using the experimental method, he concludes the results by returning to the facts. In philosophy, it can move from human life and beings, which is a kind of phenomenon. But while philosophy tries to justify its conclusions, it turns to logical analysis, not facts. The philosopher cannot experiment. The reliability of the information revealed by the philosopher is controlled not by experiment but by internal consistency.
Scientific knowledge generated by science is the source of technology and thus provides practical benefit to humanity. However, since philosophy cannot be measured and equivalence cannot be established between the measured, a technology cannot be established based on it. The task of philosophy is not to provide a practical benefit to man, but to try to find the essence of the subject and the meaning of the concepts.
Philosophy is based on a holistic knowledge and deals with existence in its entirety. Science examines the existence in pieces. Each science takes a part of it as its subject. Philosophy wants to know the essence of being. Therefore, he asks the question “what is it? Için to understand the existence. For example, “What is being?”, N What is human? as. Science is not concerned with the essence of existence, but with the cause-effect relationship between events and phenomena. He asks the question “how? Anla to understand existence.
Similar aspects of philosophy and science are:
– Both try to justify themselves based on the laws of reason and thinking.
– Both investigate the universe, human and life consciously, methodically and systematically.
– In both, information that is not passed through a critical filter is not found secure.
– Both make generalizations by reaching some principles and laws through post-critical concepts and abstractions.
The different and differentiated aspects of philosophy and science are:
– Philosophy; questioning the universe, human and life; science limits itself to facts. Divides the universe into pieces according to its field of study.
– Philosophy tries to explain the reality behind facts and events. Science aims to reach the laws of nature by establishing causal bonds between natural phenomena.
– Use methods such as speculative and rational thinking in philosophy. Sciences use inductive and deductive methods.
The table format of this comparison is as follows:
In broad terms, we can say:
The relationship between philosophy and science has developed by showing some differences in the historical process. It is not possible to see the distinction between science and philosophy in the early ages. It is clear that philosophy arises from the need to know, understand, research, answer some questions and develop like the scientific fields of study. As a matter of essence of philosophy, it examines the subjects examined by other branches of knowledge by using general concepts (Büyükkaragöz et al., 1998, p.61). Philosophy developed from time to time, showing some differences from region to region. In the ancient era, in ancient Greek civilization, philosophy was trying to find the truth. In contrast, thinkers in the East sought to use philosophy to think differently and to develop relationships that are compatible with the social environment. In the Middle Ages, religion is the center of philosophy.and beliefs are settled. In this context, philosophy has dealt with the discussions of God, divine and existence. With the secularizing culture in the modern world, science began to settle in the center; increasingly, religion, science and philosophy are seen to be separated from each other (Cevizci, 2007a, ss.12-13).
Science and philosophy coexist in the early ages. Philosophy arises from the need to know, understand, research, answer some questions and develop.
The basis of the relationship between philosophy and science is that they are complementary. This stems from the essence of science and philosophy. Philosophy, in a sense, thinking, reasoning, problem solving, theory development, explanation, interpretation and thinking styles and methods are subject (Değirmencioğlu, 2000, p.84).
Science and philosophy are not completely disconnected; It is known that science and philosophy are separated from each other with the new age. On the other hand, it cannot be considered that science and philosophy are completely disconnected from each other. In spite of the dizzying specialization in the 20th century, and as a result of this, science is rapidly detached from philosophy and philosophy from science, it is impossible for a philosophy understanding that does not take into account scientific thoughts and developments (Irzık, 2007). Each field of study has to make use of the theory of knowledge and use the ways of thinking that are valid in logic. In common terms, unscientific philosophy is deaf and mute; The philosophyless science is blind (Sonmez, 2006, p.62). The relationship between philosophy and science was established in the 19th and 20th centuries in which positive sciences managed to leave philosophy and stand on their own feet. century became much clearer. After this period, philosophy spent more time thinking about science and establishing the logic of science. For this reason, even though he was interested in science and logic much earlier, these centuries are regarded as the turning point of philosophy of science, the sub-branch of philosophy. The most mentioned subject of this period was that philosophy itself should be free from metaphysics and be scientific (Can, 2007).
Science and philosophy are closely linked. While science examines the truth in pieces, philosophy examines the truth as a whole. Science aims to establish philosophy by trying to reach reality using scientific method. Scientific propositions are generally synthetic; however, philosophical propositions are often analytical and sometimes metaphysical. In science and philosophy, knowledge is constantly viewed with a critical eye. Questions are important for science and philosophy. Philosophy and science run mental processes. While science examines the truth in pieces, philosophy examines the truth as a whole: It is the basic principle that philosophy looks at the issues more holistically when science examines the study of the subjects individually. For example, sociological society, organic and inorganic structures of chemical substances, historyexamines the backgrounds of societies, psychology, human behavior. In contrast, the truth is perhaps an indivisible whole. While science is not interested in the whole, philosophy aims to look at the whole. In constructing the truth, science is utilitarian for everyday life and the future, measuring and achieving results. On the other hand, philosophy does not have the idea of practical interest or benefit like science (Cevizci, 2007b, p.39).
Science aims to establish philosophy by trying to reach reality using the scientific method: Both philosophy and science are rational fields of study. However, they differ in method. In addition to the experimental method and mathematical explanation style, science aims to prove and prove it. Philosophy philosophers reason and develops discussions (Cevizci, 2007b, p.39). The scientific method is the way to obtain systematic information followed for the purpose of describing and explaining the facts. The first step in scientific method is description. In the description stage, the subjects and the relationships between these subjects are determined, classified and recorded. Empirical generalizations reflecting the relationship between each other and the phenomena described by the explanation are made understandable by applying some theoretical concepts. The hypothesis is a temporary explanation of the observed events. Theory, It is a tool for explaining systematically arranged facts. The scientific law is the repetition of the relationships that are constantly repeated among the subjects within the field of a discipline and accepted by the community of scientists in the form of cause and effect (Can, 2007).
In philosophy, grounding is dominant. The propositions put forward do not contradict each other; the conclusions are drawn through reasoning from the underlying propositions or propositions. Therefore, philosophical propositions may sometimes contradict the known features of truth (Sönmez, 2006, p.63). While science aims to be holistic, objective and correct, philosophy aims to be comprehensive, rational and sufficient (Türkoğlu, 1996, p.176).
Scientific propositions are generally synthetic; however, philosophical propositions are generally analytical and sometimes metaphysical: Philosophy and science are inherently the products of reason, that is to say, there is rational action in both, and both are about existence (Cevizci 2007a, p.25). In contrast, scientific propositions have equivalents in the universe and are of proven type. Philosophical propositions, on the other hand, are analytical and metaphysical, ie they are not the kind to be proved by experimentation, observation, research and documentation. In a way, from a proposition taken on the basis of the internal consistency of the propositions that do not contradict it is obtained (Sonmez, 2006, ss.63-64).
The information obtained and used in science and philosophy is constantly critically viewed: Both fields of study are processes. While all aim to find the truth, they are in a process of transition from one state to another. However, in this process, science and philosophy criticize every event and phenomenon. One of the basic characteristics of science is that it is skeptical. On the other hand, there is no bitmiş finished knowledge fil in philosophy for the philosopher (Sonmez, 2003, p.3).
For both science and philosophy, questions are important: Scientific research begins with the definition of a problem. Scientific research then aims to find answers to the questions asked in problems and sub-problems. In philosophy, questions are also very important. However, the difference in philosophy in this context is that the answers are more important. Because generally similar questions are asked in philosophy, their answers differ according to philosophy. “Truth, being, God, soul, human, time, knowledge, thinking, freedom, morality, etc. What is it? her all, some philosopher or philosophical system must seek answers to at least one (Sönmez, 2006, p.64).
Philosophy and science work mental processes: Philosophy and science constantly work mental processes in their work. While science seeks answers to the problem and philosophy aims to reach the truth, it has to be constantly rational. All processes can be classified as deductive, inductive, analogy, hypothetical – deductive, dialectic, regression of mind, retroductive, axiomatic, and fuzzy logic. In this context, the difference between science and philosophy is that science does not deal with what mental processes are; what is the way of reasoning is the main subject of philosophy study (Sönmez, 2006, p.64). The differences and similarities between science and philosophy are shown in the table above by making use of Sönmez (2006), Ergün (2006) and Cevizci (2007a – 2007b).