Reasoning and Argumentation

Reasoning and Argumentation

Reasoning is the process of extracting new judgments from them in the most general sense on the basis of the judgments considered correct.

The claim on which valid and reliable reasoning (or in other words  inference ) is based, and its judgment, must consist of logically consistent propositions. Otherwise, it will be impossible to reach a valid inference from the simplest to the most complex. The inference must therefore satisfy the validity requirements.

The arguments are made up of propositions and are based on, or referenced to, certain opinions above. The most common forms of reasoning are deduction, induction and analogy.

What is Opinion?

General opinion; it can be defined as the development of an understanding of the person, the event, the being or the thoughts put forward, the conclusion of this event, the being or the thought, and the production of an idea.

Understanding is the ability of the person to make sense of life and to give explanations about the principles and rules of life. Opinions, education, living environment, beliefs, cultural and moral rules and so on. are shaped by factors. These factors also allow people to develop their own perspective.

Different views lead to the perception and interpretation of the same events or situations in different ways. The opinions can be classified in various ways such as political, moral, religious, scientific, artistic and philosophical views according to the areas of judgment.

What is the proposition?


The argument is a new judgment based on certain evidence. Propositions or propositions that support the result proposition are called the premise. The process of arriving from the premises is called argumentation. The result may be a new judgment. What is important here is that the predecessors are the basis for the conclusion judgment.


1. Proposition:  If you want reading to contribute to your life, you should interpret what you read.

2. Proposing premise:  Interpreting what you read gives a broad horizon to people.

Conclusion proposition:  Those who contribute to their lives with the books they read are the ones who gave their lives a broad horizon.

The propositions given in the example above do not represent the argument alone. The argument is a chain of propositions and can consist of many propositions. If no propositions within the set of propositions contradict each other, they may have formal validity, but this is not enough to make it a valid argument.

The validity of the argument also requires that the information provided by the propositions be correct. That is, the validity of an argument depends on its accuracy in terms of logic and knowledge. If one of these is missing, that argument is weak or invalid. An argument can be characterized at different levels between “solid” and olmayan unconvincing ”.

Another aspect of the argument is the deliberate fraudulent establishment of the argument. If an argument involves an attack on the person who says it to refute the opposing view, if it consists of irrational questions to confuse it, and is deliberately and intentionally constructed in an inconsistent manner, they are considered fraudulent arguments (sophistication, sophistication) put forward to win the debate.

Deduction, Induction and Analogy

–  What’s deductive?
–  What’s my induction?
–  definition of Analogy

Consistency and Contradiction

–  What is consistency?
–  definition of Conflict

Please also see:

–  What is truth and reality, what are the differences?
–  Foundation in Philosophy and the importance of justification

Source:  Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and Giriş Introduction to Sociology ”Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM), MEB Philosophy Textbook