The Thought Environment Preparing Renaissance Philosophy
17th century philosophy takes place on the Western axis. The Renaissance first appeared in Italy and gave the first examples here. There are multiple factors related to the emergence of the Renaissance.
Translations from Islamic geography, geographical discoveries, economic activities and political movements can be cited as factors. The impact of science and philosophy, which began with the translation of books of Indian, Egyptian, Ancient Greek and Islamic sciences into European languages; In the West, the mind has come to the forefront. As a result of geographical discoveries, the use of printing has increased literacy. Again with the effect of geographical discoveries, developments in trade have been observed and social differences have been formed in the society with the change of production style. With the discovery of America, the resources obtained from the indigenous people living there and the cheap labor provided by the colonization of Africa caused the West to interact culturally and economically with different geographies, and all the mentioned situations formed the philosophy of this period in Europe.
In this period, before the changes in the field of philosophy, science, art, religion, economy and as a result of these changes in social life and cultural field are mentioned. The Renaissance is a period in which mentality transformations take place on the one hand and the re-formation of different administrative balances of social life. In the beginning, the pressure of the church on the individual increased against the changes in the Renaissance but this pressure weakened towards the 18th century. Again, it was seen that the consciousness of the nation began to form in the philosophy of this period. 15-17. century to better understand the philosophy of the 6th-2nd century BC and the 2nd-15th century AD must look at the philosophy.
The influence of Plato and Aristotle on the whole history of philosophy . century philosophy. This effect is manifested by translations made over Islamic philosophy. Introduced to both the original and the new interpretation of ancient Greek thought, the Western geography develops rapidly within the framework of the ideas formed in these philosophies. Plato and Aristotle academies were founded and their philosophies were concentrated. This situation gives rise to the understanding of humanism that has centered the human mind over time.
AD 2-AD In the 15th century, the fact that Christian and Islamic philosophies showed similarities as well as similarities made these philosophies have different effects on the structure of the Renaissance. In order to better understand the effect, it is necessary to look at the belief-reason problem that exists in them. At the beginning, there is the idea that reason and belief should be separated, that only the religious truths are definite and that the mind should be used for understanding. This idea, which is mostly identified with Christian philosophy, has been changed with the importance given to the mind of Islamic philosophy, that there are necessarily mental truths besides religious beliefs. Towards the end of Christian philosophy, especially Thomas from Aquinathe belief that faith is about knowing God, and mind is about knowing God’s creations; 15-17 of this change. century philosophy. 15-17. century philosophy, 2-AD 15 century as a continuation of philosophy would be wrong to see. Because 15-17. century philosophy is mostly based on rejection of that period. The mind gradually became independent of faith and formed the characteristic of this period.
15-17. Century philosophy is the transition period in which the rupture from the intellectual structure of the previous period began but still traces are seen. The first traces of change were seen in the field of art. The works, which are still very popular today in many fields of art, were created during and after that period. Great artists such as Cervantes (Servantes) and Dante (Dante) in literature, Shakespeare (Shakespeare) in theater, Leonardo da Vinci [Leonardo da Vinci] in painting, P. Brunelleschi (Burnoleski) in architecture, Michelangelo (Mikelancelo) in sculpture and painting, products in Renaissance Period yielded. All of these changes are the other important influences on the philosophy of this period.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook