What are the topics of Christian philosophy? What is the subject of Christian philosophy?

Christian philosophy is a name used for Western philosophy in the process that started with the emergence of Christianity and continued until the 15th century.

Topics in Christian Philosophy

– The Problem of Proof of God’s Existence

The basis of this problem, which is based on the proof of the existence of God in Christian philosophy, is based on the proofs of God in the philosophy of the 2nd century BC. These ontological and cosmological evidences have also been used in Islamic philosophy.

Ontological proof ; It derives from the concept of God and is logically intended to prove its existence. In Christian philosophy   , this way of proving by Anselmus indicates that God is present in the human mind in a literally unthinkable and unthinkable sense, as evidence that God exists. From this, he concludes that God exists.

Cosmological proof ; On the basis of the idea that everything is a cause, he says that all beings that exist in the universe exist because of an entity that precedes it. When he goes backwards, he argues logically that there must be a first being, and that it is God. This way of proving  was proposed by Thomas of Aquina under the influence of Aristotle’s first view of cause  .

– The Problem of Evil

When the problem of evil is considered, it is generally necessary to explain the good and the evil, or the sin and the reward. The main question is inde If God exists, if He has absolute power, and He wants the good of man, why does He not prevent or remove evil in the world? Eksen

The problem of evil is related to many problems in Christian philosophy. Evil is presented as evidence that God does not exist in the problem of proof to the existence of God. If God does not abolish evil and there is evil, then there are those who make an inference to God. This inference; When he first accepted the existence of God and finally reached the conclusion that there is no God, he was criticized by being powerless.

According to Christianity God; He is the only creature that commands people to do good, to stay away from evil, and to create everything. In this respect, various explanations have been made to the problem of evil in Christian philosophy. Among these are the  explanations of Augustine and Thomas of Aquina.

Augustine states that God has always commanded the good, but that He also recognizes the freedom to choose good or evil by giving man will. Evil stems from weakness of willpower. Hz. He points out that God did not create man as a puppet, pointing out that even Adam was expelled from heaven as a result of a hand reaching for something prohibited. In this respect, the problem of evil is also closely related to the problem of fate and free will. The fact that fate is known by God and not known by man raises the question of free will. Augustine thinks that man does not know his destiny as the realization of free will.

According to Thomas of Aquinia, evil is the result of weakness of will caused by lack or lack of good. He was  influenced by Ibn Sînâ in his views and synthesized Ibn Sînâ ‘s views with the doctrine of Augustine. According to Ibn Sina, the creator created the universe perfectly. Evil stems from the fact that the imperfect man is far from virtue. In addition, good is bad for understanding.

– The Problem of Immortality of the Soul

The question “Does man only consist of body or body and soul? Iştir is also directed to Christian philosophy. In Christian philosophy, the dualistic view of the soul and body is generally accepted. The philosophy of dönem changing and mortal body ”and meyen immortal and immortal soul” is the basic assumption in the philosophy and theology of this period. The soul is independent of the body and created before the body. Spirit without a material structure; it is immutable, infinite and immortal. The soul is separated from God and will return to it. The opposition of body and soul is also proof of the immortality of the soul. According to Augustinus, the human being consisting of the soul and the body leaves only his body in this world and goes to the other world with his soul. According to him, the soul is immortal.

– The problem of universals

The term literal is used to refer to general concepts that include all individuals of a particular class. There are deep debates in philosophy about what universes are and where they are found.

The discussion of universals generally emerges in Plato and Aristotle’s understanding of existence. According to Plato, universals, ie ideals, are not separate objects, but a separate entity. In Aristotle, universals which are considered as essences are within the scope of the objects themselves. Based on these ideas, the discussion of universals was reinterpreted in the 15th century AD with the presence of God. Three opinions emerged in the discussion of universals (Figure 2.1).

Prepared by:  Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source:  Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Philosophy Textbook

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