What is knowledge, what does it mean?
Knowledge is the name given to the product arising from the relationship established between the knowing entity, the subject (subject) and the known entity, the object . More precisely, the subject (subject) is interpreting the object (object), making a judgment or explanation about it , is called information .
There is a wide variety of opinions about what information is. We can start with the most common and easy to understand. Through sensory organs, people perceive the environment and the universe in which they live. In this perception, there are two basic elements called “subject” (subject) and “object“ (object). The subject knows, that is, human; objects are known entities.
Information is often defined as the product of the relationship between the knowing subject and the known object . In this definition, the subject refers to an active human being; the object is the passive entity to which the subject is oriented. In addition, information flow (link) refers to activities such as perception, thinking, understanding and explanation.
An active person is conscious and purposefully directed to an object, making it the subject. The information flow relationship is established between the subject and the object to which the subject is directed and information is formed as a result of this relationship.
Knowledge is what is the product of the relationship established between the subject and the object as a result of the objective orientation of the subject.
Knowledge is the reproduction of the legal relations of the objective world created by man with his social labor in his thought. The relation established between man and his environment, ‘knowledge’ in the synonym, has been evaluated from various angles since the first thoughts. Some have argued that this relationship can never be established (knowledge cannot be obtained N.), some can be partially established, some can be established only at the divine level, others have been established as relative (relative N.) at any time.
Research on the source, essence and limit of knowledge has given rise to various doctrines. Rationalism, empiricism, empiricism, intuitionism, criticism, skepticism, obscurity, realityism, practitionership, despair, faithfulness, probabilism, momentaryness, voluntarism, innateism, wisdom and so on. various arguments have been made as to whether information is possible for human beings.
In ancient Greek thought, scholars and skeptics believed that knowledge was impossible. Socrates also argued that physical knowledge is not precise, but that definitive knowledge can only be realized in the field of ceremonial.
Kant idealism, Comte positivism, Spencer evolutionism Heidegger and Sartre existentialialism (existentialism) Camus ridiculousness has maintained the same belief and brought to our age.
The teachings claiming that knowledge is possible against them are divided into two major camps on how to obtain knowledge. Those who gather under the general name of ‘Uscular’ argue that knowledge has existed in human mind since birth, and those gathered under the general name of ‘sensors’ argue that knowledge can only be obtained through our senses.
There are also teachings such as Plato and Hegel’s objective thoughtfulness, which assert that knowledge determines human independence and self-determination.
The British thinker Spencer’s argument that there are three kinds of information led to a classification of knowledge. According to Spencer, one of these three types of information is ‘public information’, which is scattered and daily information, and the second is ‘scientific information’, which is obtained from the combination of these scattered information in their own disciplines, and the third one is ‘philosophical information’. It is the information that is combined in the law.
Knowledge is not ready in nature, there are objects and events in nature, but there is no information, it is man himself with his work on nature that creates and produces knowledge and with the contribution of thought to this work.
Apart from metaphysical, idealistic, and theological assumptions, sensationalism, which was very close to science, defined knowledge as the product of ‘individual experimentation’. However, it could not be explained where he found the concepts and scholars he had to use to regulate his perceptions. Because these concepts and scholars were not the individual experiment, but the products that the social experiment created and prepared for work for thousands of years (reason and knowledge N.). No information can be disclosed without specifying the social character of human practice. Human knowledge acquired through social work is the reflection of nature in consciousness. However, this is not a simple physical projection, as a mirror reflects nature, but a conscious projection that requires a number of complex functions. Information starts from the object itself. It is perceived by the senses. It undergoes various abstractions and combinations in human consciousness. They become conceptualized, reached, legalized (and hypothesized N.). Then he returns to nature, the object, and controls himself with practice, verifies (and theorizes N.). There is no knowledge unless the concept which is conceptualized, reached, legalized in human consciousness is returned to nature and verified by practice. Knowledge comes from the concrete, passes through the abstract and takes place again in the concrete.
Sensible data is limited, for example, they cannot report that the light runs at a speed of three hundred thousand kilometers per second. We design this in our thinking. But this does not mean that knowledge is only in our abstract thinking and designs. Because the designs of our abstract thought are inspired by the objects we perceive with the senses, and we have practically verified this design by transferring it to the objective world with the tools we make. If we didn’t perform this verification, the speed of light we designed would be a void, not information. In fact, there are realities in the objective world that transcend human design. The existence times of some elementary particles, such as mesons, are estimated to be one hundred millionths of a second, which no person can design.
Knowledge is always a incomplete and incomplete process that proceeds in the direction of completeness, and will always remain so. But this does not mean that full (definitive, finished, absolute) information will never be available. Because every missing information includes completeness, in other words, every relative information. Completeness, lack, absoluteness are in relativity. The wave theory of light, for example, was abandoned at the beginning of the twentieth century because of its inadequacy, as it was understood that light was also a granule. This relative and incomplete knowledge, however, worked until it was released and enabled many scientific facts to be unearthed. Because it contained its own sovereignty. (The theories that light is a wave or a particle are combined and overcome by the theory that light is both a wave and a particle according to the circumstances. N.)
The first thoughts that explored the first structure of the universe like this were water, air, fire, and so on. they had seen it. All of these relative information, which left their place in time, carried the absolute knowledge that the universe had an essential structure. Absolute information is the relative information; in other words, complete information is the ongoing content of missing information. Relative knowledge and absolute knowledge are interdependent and cannot be without one. Because nature is infinite, the process of knowledge is infinite. To put it more clearly, information will never end anywhere, and no final information will ever be reached, as metaphysicians imagine. Esi The end of knowledge means the end of infinity, which is impossible ”.
To sum up, knowledge cannot be obtained by reason alone, as the ark of idealistic rationalists, nor by sense alone, as the ark of materialist sensers. First, it is produced by human practice. This production takes place in two stages; the first stage is the sensory stage, the second stage is the logical stage, both of which are supervised in practice. The control of the production of information is also done by going back to practice and verifying the information. The information process is thus completed. ”From living perception to abstract thinking and from there to practice; this is the dialectical way of knowing the truth and getting information bilgi. Practice is both the point of origin and the measure of accuracy. Görüş The idea that life is the basis of knowledge theory of peer and practice leads us to materialism inevitably ”.