What is Neo Platonism (Neo Platonism)?
Neo Platonism or Neoplatonism is the modern term used to describe the Platonic philosophy process that began with the work of Plotinus and ended with the closure of Plato’s academy in 529 AD. A philosophical movement formed by reconciling the teachings of Plato and Aristotle. This type of Platonism is inherently characterized by mystical or religious elements.
Neo-Platonism began to dominate towards the end of antiquity and is regarded as the end of ancient Greek philosophy. It was Platonism which was transformed into mysticism by fusing the teachings of Aristotle, Pythagoras and stoa under the influence of Eastern religions and Christianity.
It is stated that it has a reactionary character because it explains the universal formation by spiritual principle. Plotinos and Proklos are important thinkers of Neo-Platonism. In addition, Porphyrios, the student of Plotinos, Aedesius of Cappadocia, the founder of the Pergamon New Platonist school, Plutarch of Athens and Hypatia of Alexandria are exemplary leading figures of New Platonism.  The philosophical system of the new Platonism was developed primarily by Plotinus and others. It is a period in which philosophy was religiousized. The concept of God came to the fore in this period. In the history of philosophy, Hegel accused the Neo-Platonists of putting forward a kıy highly chopped bragging on God ”.
The influence of the new Platonism has been enormous. It influenced Christian philosophy, all theology of the late antiquity. In almost all of the Middle Ages, this system of thought was one of the most influential versions of Plato’s system of thought. It was also influential on Islam and Jewish thought. The understanding of theory in philosophy emerged against the life practices that were given importance in antiquity.
Particularly during the Italian renaissance, names such as Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino, Medici, Michelangelo and Sandro Botticelli have contributed to the newplatonism. Plato’s manuscripts brought to Italy from Byzantium were translated by these names at the Florence Academy. Moreover, during this period, the same names that departed from Plato, revealed the concept of platonic love.
Yeniplatonism was introduced by Ammonius Sakkas in Alexandria. That is why it is also called the Alexandria school (however, it would be more appropriate to use this phrase for Philon’s Jewish philosophy and the Christian philosophers of Alexandria in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD). Yeniplatonculuk, by the student of Sakkas Plotinos İ.S. It continued until 529. The Yeniplatonism of Syria and Athens, wholly mysterious with Pythagorean elements, is also called Polytheist Yeniplatonism. Newplatonism should not be confused with the new academy. It has greatly influenced the mystery philosophy developed in the early Christianity and Muslim countries. It explains the universal formation by spiritual principle and therefore has a reactionary nature. Porphyrios, student of Plotinos,
Among the various schools and perceptions of newplatonism, Plottinism is the most systematic and influential. Plotinos’ doctrine is a pure idealist doctrine that denies all materialism and advances all spiritism. According to Plotinus, the universe and man came from God and returned to God. There are spirits in the first step of the descent ladder, animals in the second step and objects in the third step. In the first step of the exit ladder, there is understanding, in the second step, in conclusion, in the last step there is mystical intuition (mysticism). Thus, the objective being that emerges from God as a soul descends to the world and returns to God as material (water and product, emanation). God is nothing we think, because it is everything. God is the Father who wants the good of all. Human spirits, they divorced their lives from godhood to descend to rude matter and descended to earth. What they suffer is the punishment for this behavior.
According to Plotinos’ custom, there are three ways to lead people to God: Art, love, philosophy. One can only reach God through these passages or through these steps. The artist seeks the ide in their sensible appearances, in the soul of the person who loves, and the philosopher in God. Plotinos’ famous concept of universal soul is expressed in Islamic Sufism in the same sense with the words ashes of the soul, ashes of the soul and ashes of the mind. This concept was used much later in Western philosophy and in particular by Hegel. Yenlatlatonism, is considered the end of ancient Greek philosophy. In the History of Philosophy Lessons, Hegel accused the yenlatlatonists of advancing ‘a very finely chopped bragging on God’. Lenin put this note in his Philosophical Book next to Hegel’s judgment: ‘But this is the philosophical idealism that clearly leads to God, he is more honest than hypocritical and cowardly obscurantism. Hense-Leonard describes the Yeniplatonism in his precious work, the Helen-Latin Ancient Knowledge: Philon Judaeus (50 AD) distinguishes the Old Testament concept of God from the world as an absolute, and holds God as an outspoken and undefined one. Since God must be kept away from the matter, in any form, from touching, the task of the ideal is to mediate between God and the world. The common point of all ideals is the logo of the Stoics. This doctrine merges with the teachings of Plotinos (204-270) at some points. The teachings of Plotinos, It is a new interpretation of the teachings of Plato and Aristotle. Plato’s four principles standing side by side; Plotinos tries to separate the ideal of goodness, the realm of ideals, the realm of appearance and the essence. For this, the highest principle, one with the ideals nus (us-soul), the spirit world, and the material world is leaking from him. The highest principle that is raised above ideals as the equivalent of ideas of goodness, that is, one, is neither recognizable nor recognizable, as this work requires subject-object duality. This one, by turning to itself, creates the duality of the subject, the nus and the object, the ideals. The replica of Nus and the ideals is the soul, the spirit of the universe (spirit of the universe) and tekruh, the world from the soul. Despite the pessimism that the soul descends from the world, Plotinos praises the lack of the senses and makes a theodice. Plotinos sees imitations of ideals against Plato, who sees only imitation of one imitation in his works of art. The influence of Plotinos dates back to the time when the individual’s ego (Hoego) is heard and experienced by the individual, and the direct proximity of the spirit and God’s existence. His philosophy is that the soul speaks to itself ” the person’s self (Hoego) is heard and lived by the individual and the presence of the spirit and the presence of God’s direct proximity to the present date. His philosophy is that the soul speaks to itself ” the person’s self (Hoego) is heard and lived by the individual and the presence of the spirit and the presence of God’s direct proximity to the present date. His philosophy is that the soul speaks to itself ”