What is Philosophical Thinking, How Does it Happen?
Thinking is an ability of man, a necessary condition of life.
When we say human, we first understand the ”thinking being varlık. Pascal thought that all the value of man was in his mind. Because one side of human life is action , the other side, that is the basic idea that preceded the action . Shakespeare’s Hamlet is described to us as the human truth: “Think before you speak, weigh before eyle.” Again we encounter the following sentence about thinking in Hamlet: “Nothing in itself is not good or bad, everything that depends on our thoughts about what . “
Does the person who boast of being the only thinker think enough? We sometimes complain that people don’t think well or think enough. Most of us complain about living in an unthinking world. Most of the people adopt an easiness to shoulder a whole life with the least thought. Some even mock thought, others think that they are really thinking. In a world where non-thinkers make up a large majority, in a world where thought is considered luxury, we define the person who thinks despite everything as real people.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau says in his very famous book “Emile” or “Education düşün that thinking poses an educational problem:“ Thinking is not natural for man. Thinking is an art that he learns and learns very hard like all others. For both sexes, I think of two classes that are truly separate from each other: one class that thinks and the other class that never thinks. This distinction comes entirely from education. ”
In the past, thought was generally confronted with emotion , and in many places a contrast between emotion and thought was emphasized. Accordingly, emotions were largely dangerous and thoughts were savior. Today we know that feeling is also a kind of thinking and we see that they do not form two separate fields, both of them come from a single source, not two separate sources. But the ancients looked at the problem differently. They thought that emotions or passions , using a term they often use , blur the mind, the consciousness, so they are things that need to be relieved or repressed. For example, Jean-Jacques Rousseau said in his “Dreams of a Lonely Wanderer:: Ebilir My heart and mind are not the same individual. The emotion that is faster than lightning fills my soul, but it washes and shakes me where it enlightens me. I have to be cool to think. ”
In any case, thinking is the first condition of being human and it is the decisive force of change that constitutes human life. Like Ernest Renan, we can explain this fact through negation: tek The only way to remain unchanged is to think . A person who can think in a real sense is not a habit of saying no ; but it is a person who can say ” no” when necessary . Alain Badiou says: “Thinking means no . Notice, yes is the sign of a sleeping man. In awakening, on the contrary, he raises his head and says no . ”
Thinking is to look at people with a holistic view of human life. Descartes said that human knowledge was a whole. When we narrow our field of thought, we cannot say that we have settled enough in the world. Thinking is to know to look at the world from all angles, not from one or several angles. In his book Philosophical Autobiography, Karl Jaspers states: olma The condition of being human requires the individual to participate in life, to participate in the whole and to understand life, whereas specialization enables the individual to make a competent effort in his / her profession. If there were only experts in the world, humanity would be prey to the person who would use force to defy people. We all have to get out of our narrow spaces and become partners in the destiny of humanity. This makes us have to reach the most general knowledge. This of course should not make us think of an effort to have information in every field. Human life is too short to make it possible for us to reach every area. So we have to make good use of our lives, to be methodical, to be sober or selective, and to be careful not to randomly combine non-related information in our consciousness. ”
Thinking in the real sense is to use good reason to correctly grasp the world and the self, the world itself and the world in itself. Descartes was the first in the 17th century to tell us that we should use our reason well. Descartes’ main purpose is to see everything clearly in thought and action and thus to walk safely through the paths of life. The Stoics, the rational philosophers of ancient times, had emphasized the importance of rational thought. For them, the source of the human mind was in nature. The human being, who was a part of nature, had to live in accordance with nature. Emperor Marcus Aurelius said: amak Even if for a short time not to take anything other than the master as a guide; Always stay the same, in great pain, when we lose a child, in long illnesses ”acak We would endure all kinds of pain with the power of our minds, and overcome all difficulties with the power of our minds. Morality had to be based on rationality, and a happy life was only possible with good use of reason: olmak To be your master, not to let yourself be dragged by something else, to behave with joy even in all circumstances, to integrate softness and seriousness in your personality happily… ”
In the 17th century, Kant reported that man had to use his mind well to defeat his smallness. The only way out for man’s salvation was to show everyone the courage to use his own mind. People were generally working with the wisdom of others. We needed to look for the source of the small in this easy attitude. Little ones are easy, Kant thought, as cowardice and laziness fed all the little ones. According to him, people were able to put a book in place of their minds instead of their minds and they were not disturbed by it. It seemed as if it had become a habit to think of someone else with reason. Therefore, smallness became an almost necessary condition of being human. According to Kant, it was imperative for individuals to get out of their smallness, which had become their natural state, albeit difficult. this detachment was the basic condition of being human. Kant says: “It is appropriate to turn to reason. It is not appropriate to turn to a mysterious, supposedly true sense, or with a transcendental intuition, which is called faith. ”
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and Giriş Introduction to Sociology ”Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM), Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”Afşar Timuçin