What is Zuhud movement and Sufism in Islamic World?
The conditions underlying the emergence and systematization of kalam as a thought movement have also led to the beginning of another movement in Islamic society. The conquests had led to the expansion of Islamic geography and strengthening of political sovereignty, as well as economic growth and prosperity.
This situation brought about some changes in Islamic society’s view of life, values and relations. While scientific disciplines were developed and developed in various fields of theory and practice, the relaxation and degeneration of religious and moral life due to the differences of opinion, competition and controversy that emerged in Islamic society, and the pampering caused by enrichment began to attract some people’s reactions. These people chose not to be part of what went wrong in the face of what was going on and to retreat to their corners and to recite themselves. This preference has become more and more supporters and has become a moral and ascetic movement. They are not known for the dry debate and controversy of Islam, sincerely and enthusiastically to live with the principles of people from all kinds of evil and rudeness, they argued to come. Many elements that confirm and support this idea in the Qur’an and Hz. The word of the Prophet was present in the Sunnah, which means approvals of behavior.
For example, to give up the repentance / evil that people care about and try to apply, not to be attached to zuhhd / temporary things, to be aware of the poor / impotence, not to be afraid of patience / evil, to thank the goodness / trust, to trust in Allah, consent / optimism, violation / sincerity, / The righteousness and behaviors such as righteousness are always the values that the Qur’an presents to human beings. It was given by the Prophet and his Companions. Thus, this zuhhd and moral movement, which emerged as a result of religious sensitivities and was represented by Abu Zerri’l-Gifari from the companions generation and Hasan al-Basri from the second generation, gradually gained a theoretical / theoretical dimension. Since the middle of the century, it is known as Sufism and its members began to be called Sufi and Sufism (Kaya, 2003: 41-46).
Sufism, whose many definitions have been described throughout its history, is a movement which aims to achieve high moral values and to reach the knowledge of truth through discovery and inspiration by decreasing the rhyme / material interests in the most general sense and performing the exquisite liquidation / inner purification by remembering and contemplating Allah. When the Sufis return to their inner worlds to purify by moral means, they first experience a sense of nothingness and nothingness, especially when they feel that they have attained the truth they want to achieve through discovery and inspiration; they use a symbolic language to express all these situations.
Sufis, who went on to the theoretical / theoretical dimension at the conceptual level as well as their operational / practical aims towards high morality during the three centuries of Sunni Sufism, which continued until the time of Gaza, came up with different views on terms such as ingenuity, monotheism, affection, science and survival. However, it should be noted that these are not interpretations at the level of philosophical doctrine. After the Ghazali, XII-XIII. century sufi philosophers like fiehâbeddin es-Sühreverdî, Muhyiddin İbnü’l-Arabî and İbn Seb’în took on a sufi philosophical structure. These mutasavvışar created a philosophical-mystical mysticism by blending their mystic pleasures and tendencies with philosophical teachings and adding many elements they took from other mystical cultures to this. Especially Ibn al-Arabi’s system built around vahdet-i wujud and manifest theory,