Who is Gottfried Leibniz?
Like many of the philosophers of the 17th century, Leibniz moves from the concept of substance in Descartes’ philosophy.
According to Leibniz, there are ‘monads’ (individual entities, indivisible essences) on the basis of the world and beings. Monads are self-acting and perceptible beings. Since the solitary monads’ essence is’ force ‘, there is neither a shape nor volume, nor parts. The essence of monads must think like spiritual points which are ‘edim’ (activity). Therefore, monads act on their own. What separates them from the atoms of the Democritus is that they cannot be material, they can act on their own. The performance of each of the monads is the future’s determinant.
According to Leibniz, monads are in a predetermined order. This is called order theory.
According to the Leibniz system of thought, the principles of thought, general ideas are found in the human mind as a hedgehog. Leibniz, in his work ‘Theodizee’, said that the world we live in is the most regular and the most perfect in the world. This view of Leibniz was wanted to be made ridiculous in Voltaire’s long story called ‘Candide’.
According to Russell, Leibniz (1646-1716), one of the most intelligent people in the world, was born in Leipzig, Germany. He studied philosophy in Leipzig, mathematics in Jena and law in Altdorf. He lived an active life in terms of thinking and action and held senior positions. His Works: Discourse on Metaphysics, New Essays on Human Anger, Theodicée, Monadology, New System on Interaction of Nature and Substances, Knowledge, Truth and Expression.
Leibniz tried to re-establish human knowledge on the basis of unidentifiable basic elements in order to express philosophy with a mathematical language of high value. The propositions were divided into two as truths and truths. Their accuracy is a compulsory truth, and they are innate in the human mind. To think the opposite of them leads to a conflict of mind. Case truths are acquired through experience and contingent. Thus, to think otherwise does not mislead the mind. The principle of their accuracy is sufficient reason is the principle. He argued that everything in the universe can be reduced to non-divisible, pieces-free simple substances called monads. The monads cannot exist in any way other than through creation, nor can they disappear without being eliminated. They are not elongated and are spiritually constructed based on the spirit concept. Even the constituent monads of matter are spiritual. They differ from each other in terms of their level of perception and their degree of desire. Each develops according to its own structure and legality. They don’t take anything from each other. The monads are closed unions, no windows. The soul and the body work in harmony with each other according to a pre-established principle of harmony. God is the Creator of this principle and the guarantee of its functioning. no windows. The soul and the body work in harmony with each other according to a pre-established principle of harmony. God is the Creator of this principle and the guarantee of its functioning. no windows. The soul and the body work in harmony with each other according to a pre-established principle of harmony. God is the Creator of this principle and the guarantee of its functioning.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd and 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lesson Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook