Who is Jeremy Bentham?

Who is Jeremy Bentham?

He was an English jurist and philosopher who lived between the dates of 15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832.

The teaching of the doctrine and the highest number of people to the highest level of happiness düzey is recognized by the principle of English law, morality, politics and society philosophers. At the age of four, Bentham was taught Latin at the age of twelve and was sent to Oxford by his father. But Bentham, after the conservative lectures of the traditionalist William Blackstone, who was one of the leading authorities of his time, soon decided to write about what law is rather than to be a law enforcer, and has devoted his life to criticizing and correcting existing law and society.

Although Bentham has always been associated with the doctrine of utilitarianism and the principle of inin the highest number of happiness to the highest number of people, l the doctrine and the principle are only the starting point of the critique of society that aims to test the usefulness of its existing institutions, practices and beliefs with an objective assessment criterion. Bentham is an outspoken legal reformer, a ruthless critic of established political doctrines such as natural law, natural rights and contracting. From the 1820s onwards, Bentham’s ideas began to evoke a profound influence on the public administration reforms of the 19th century.

Beccaria , Helvetius , Diderot , d’Alembert and Voltairesuch as enlightenment period philosophers, as well as Locke and HumeBentham, who was also influenced by him, combined his experimenter approach with a conception of rationality based on conceptual clarity and deductive reasoning. In this context, Bentham took the example of Locke, who emphasized the importance of us in the face of tradition and defended certainty in the use of terms. Indeed, all of Bentham’s philosophy design is actually an explanation design. To illustrate what we should aim for, Bentham set out to explain the values, the psychology to show what people actually wanted; they wanted to clarify the idea of ​​real bir law için both as a whole and in basic terms to design the appropriate management, law and punishment strings.

Understanding the law involves understanding things like rights and duties. In the experimenter tradition, where ler understanding dağ is provided by dik perception bileşen, complex things that cannot be perceived directly as ğ golden mountain ye become understandable because they can be separated into simple components (gold and mountain) that we can experiment with. On the other hand, the analysis method of the experimenter does not work in analyzing the terms such as rights or homework that Bentham considers to analyze. As a result, it is very likely that confronting one part of a thing or one dimension by isolating it will cause confusion. This situation turned to a completely new and unique method which he called Bentham (paraphrasis).

Bentham’s Russell meaning da is not the word of the basic unit of the re-expression method, the 20th century Russell , Carnap , Quineis the pioneer of the logical analysis methods developed by thinkers. The phrase Bentham aims in this way is not to turn the troubled word into other words, but to convert the sentence in which it forms part of the word to another sentence. The narrative method is open-ended by turning Bentham’s terms, such as rights, duties, obligations, and privileges, which he calls ları fictional selfs ın, to the sentences in which they are not included. Although the fictional self seems to be useful in the beginning, these terms remain prejudice, since the things they refer to are completely forgotten or left out of the agenda. That is why Bentham tries to keep the law as far away from these fictional self as possible. at least, they think that explanations and basics can be given away from the use of these terms. For example, sentences related to rights are explained by Bentham through sentences related to assignments. According to Bentham, a certain right is the one which is provided to someone by the assignment of assignments to others. Of course, homework assignments are fictional self, but they can also be explained by sentences about the threat of punishment. According to Bentham, the punishment is a threat to pain. In this way, Bentham calls kend real self Bö; that is, we can reach clear and simple thoughts that we can directly understand with perception. Bentham says there are words that don’t require us to go to a jurist to learn the meaning of pain and pleasure.

According to Bentham, although morality and law can be defined scientifically, such a definition needs a description of human nature. According to him, human nature can be explained by two main impulses, doğ pleasure ıyla and ıyla pain ”as nature is explained through the laws of physics. This view forms the basis of Bentham’s theory of alık psychological nurturing Bu. Although he knows that there is no direct proof of such an analysis of human nature, Bentham argues that “nature has placed man in the hands of the two ruling masters of pleasure and pain İnsan. According to him, on the one hand the criterion of truth and wrong, on the other hand, the chain of causes and consequences are subject to the kingdom of pain and pleasure. Pain and pleasure govern us all, all that we say and all that we think; all our efforts to salvation from your talent serve to reveal and confirm this kingdom. It not only shows what we should do, but it also provides the basis for the definition of may good ac for the person as well as the explanations about the pleasure and the painful action that directly determine what we will do. Based on this, Bentham argues that we can create a value account on the basis of the pain and pleasure that exists in each individual. According to this view, known as ler calculus of pleasure ölç or) account of happiness leri (felicif calculus), pleasure and pain are objective sensations and can be measured by their densities, times, productivity (in terms of future possibilities of likelihood), their purity and size.

This fundamentalist hedonism of Bentham accompanies the path of pathological selfishness, which naturally follows the interests of man. Bentham argues that if one’s interests are dominant against the interests of others or the interests of all others, the purpose of people’s actions is their happiness, and that a natural ability of man should be considered as the servant of that purpose. It can be said that Bentham put forward moral individualism with this explanation of human nature which takes human as a source of values.In fact, Bentham’s moral philosophy is a reflection of the principle of lılık the highest level of happiness in the greatest number of people mutluluk, which he calls yüksek the principle of usefulness ”or” the principle of greatest happiness Nit. Bentham says that any action that does not produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people is morally wrong, as a principle or principle that does not endorse or approve an action or situation according to the search or reduction of general happiness. Happiness can be calculated depending on the plurality of pleasure and the absence of pain. In this context, the moral philosophy of Bentham reflects the spiritual and spiritual pathology of man as the main motivators of pleasure. An important point to be underlined here is that each individual is taken equally to another while happiness calculation is made.

As a result, there is no discrepancy between Benthic psychology and psychology and the principle of utility. On the other hand, Bentham’s goal of increasing happiness is a practical aim and it has had many different suggestions, such as the use of frozen peas in this direction. One of Bentham’s most practical suggestions is the prison he calls inden panopticon Bent. This prison model, designed by Bentham to end the chaos in the prisons of the era, is a circle-shaped structure in which the guards in the center keep the detainees under control. With this prison that Bentham thought he needed to operate privately and planned to govern as a contract, he had planned not only to make the detainees reliable, but also to earn money over time. But this plan was blocked by the land owners around the place where the prison was to be set up and eventually lost both time and money. Bentham, who believed that it would be enough to apply to the intellectuals to implement the proposals and agreements until the panopticon design, started to support democracy when it realized that this was not enough. Bentham, who has not adopted the concepts of natural right, natural law and society, which underlie the political philosophy of numerous philosophers before him, including Locke, as we have already mentioned, he called these concepts fictional selfs and argued that they had no reality. Such concepts were presented in response to questions of the source of obedience to the state at that time and what the conditions of the legitimate revolution were. Bentham argued that the basis of agreement, based on agreement, is based on calculating whether the ground of obedience to management would be less than the potential harm of benefit, that is, the loss of obedience. This opposition of Bentham has only been made explicit by suggestions such as a human-vote and the right to vote secretly, that the rule of law and the system of governance must have changed. Such concepts were presented in response to questions of the source of obedience to the state at that time and what the conditions of the legitimate revolution were. Bentham argued that the basis of agreement, based on agreement, is based on calculating whether the ground of obedience to management would be less than the potential harm of benefit, that is, the loss of obedience. This opposition of Bentham has only been made explicit by suggestions such as a human-vote and the right to vote secretly, that the rule of law and the system of governance must have changed. Such concepts were presented in response to questions of the source of obedience to the state at that time and what the conditions of the legitimate revolution were. Bentham argued that the basis of agreement, based on agreement, is based on calculating whether the ground of obedience to management would be less than the potential harm of benefit, that is, the loss of obedience. This opposition of Bentham has only been made explicit by suggestions such as a human-vote and the right to vote secretly, that the rule of law and the system of governance must have changed. that is, he argued that the possible harm to obedience was based on the calculation of whether the resistance would be less than the possible harm. This opposition of Bentham has only been made explicit by suggestions such as a human-vote and the right to vote secretly, that the rule of law and the system of governance must have changed. that is, he argued that the possible harm to obedience was based on the calculation of whether the resistance would be less than the possible harm. This opposition of Bentham has only been made explicit by suggestions such as a human-vote and the right to vote secretly, that the rule of law and the system of governance must have changed.

These democratic proposals of Bentham are also in line with the moral philosophy sayı the highest level of happiness in the highest number of people âk and the views of psychologi- cal favors. According to psychosocialism, if everyone is pursuing their own interests, that means that governments and managers can pursue their own interests. Therefore, dictators, kings and oligarchies should not be trusted. the principle of el the highest number of people is the highest level of happiness inde, which is the real purpose of governments, but it can be safe when the administration is in the hands of most people. If all of the people are equipped with political power, they will only serve this purpose by following their own interests.

The concept of freedom, which was developed by Bentham in relation to democracy and utilitarianism, corresponds to what is now called ı negative freedom Bent. Describing freedom as ği the absence of obstruction olduğun, Bentham says that the individual is free to the extent that it is not blocked. He denies that liberty is natural or that there is a priori freedom zone in which the individual is dominant. In relation to this statement of freedom, Bentham defines the law as negative. Considering that the value criterion provides pleasure and pain, freedom for Bentham is good because it gives pleasure, but its limitation is bad because it hurts. The more controlled the state is, the more free the individual. On the other hand, Bentham recognizes that law is essential for the social order that forms the basis of good governance. Adopting the positive role law can play in the advancement of society, Bentham argues that the law reflects the individual’s interests to the extent that it meets and protects people’s economic and personal needs. Bentham argued that rightly before his predecessor, law was not born out of natural law, but was merely a commandment or expression of the will of the sovereign. In fact, although a law may be questionable from the moral point of view, even though moral misconceptions are ordered, it is still ba law Nit even if it is not based on consent. On the other hand, as stated earlier, the legislator must regulate the system of law in such a way that only those who take care of their interests are directed to the general interest. argued that the law would reflect the individual’s interests to the extent that it meets and protects the economic and personal needs of individuals. Bentham argued that rightly before his predecessor, law was not born out of natural law, but was merely a commandment or expression of the will of the sovereign. In fact, although a law may be questionable from the moral point of view, even though moral misconceptions are ordered, it is still ba law Nit even if it is not based on consent. On the other hand, as stated earlier, the legislator must regulate the system of law in such a way that only those who take care of their interests are directed to the general interest. argued that the law would reflect the individual’s interests to the extent that it meets and protects the economic and personal needs of individuals. Bentham argued that rightly before his predecessor, law was not born out of natural law, but was merely a commandment or expression of the will of the sovereign. In fact, although a law may be questionable from the moral point of view, even though moral misconceptions are ordered, it is still ba law Nit even if it is not based on consent. On the other hand, as stated earlier, the legislator must regulate the system of law in such a way that only those who take care of their interests are directed to the general interest. that he was merely a commandment or expression of the will of the sovereign. In fact, although a law may be questionable from the moral point of view, even though moral misconceptions are ordered, it is still ba law Nit even if it is not based on consent. On the other hand, as stated earlier, the legislator must regulate the system of law in such a way that only those who take care of their interests are directed to the general interest. that he was merely a commandment or expression of the will of the sovereign. In fact, although a law may be questionable from the moral point of view, even though moral misconceptions are ordered, it is still ba law Nit even if it is not based on consent. On the other hand, as stated earlier, the legislator must regulate the system of law in such a way that only those who take care of their interests are directed to the general interest.

Among Bentham’s many works, which must be viewed as more of a law and political critique than a philosopher, his first published work was ‘A Fragment on Goverment,’ which criticized Blackstone’s traditional anti-reformist views ; legal, moral, and could form the basis for social reform can be considered the masterpiece is trying to create rational principles “An Introduction to the Prenciples of Morals and Legislation” (Ethics and Introduction to the Legislative Policy, 1789), including the democratic proposals for parliamentary reform “Catechism of Parliamentary Reform” (Parliament A Guide to Reform, 1817) and the Kılavuz Constitutional Code Reform, which only publishes its first volume .(Constitutional Law, 1830) comes first.

Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University, Department of Sociology, Class 1 ”Introduction to Philosophy“ and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade ”History of Philosophy“ Lesson Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook; Philosophy Dictionary; Science and Art Publications