Who is Karl Heinrich Marx?
Karl Heinrich Marx (pronounced: Karl Haynrih Marks) (5 May 1818 Trier – 14 March 1883 London)
He was a philosopher, political economist and revolutionary who lived in the 19th century and is the theoretical founder of Communism in its most basic sense.
Karl Marx (1818-83) was born in the city of Trier, Prussia, in a middle-class Jewish family. Marks first studied at the University of Bonn, then at the University of Berlin. Here he discovered philosophy and became a member of a dynamic, socially conscious and active group of thinkers known as the ür Young Hegelians Burada. Among the young Hegians were the theologians and philosophers who used Hegel ‘s theories and the belief that society as they knew it was far from perfect and in need of improvement. The group carried out tireless and brutal attacks against the Prussian church and state.
In 1840, in 1840 Marx wanted to refrain from submitting his doctoral dissertation on Greek atomics to the University of Berlin and to try to give it to the University of Jena. However, he chose to return to journalism as a career because his views were too radical for the academic community. He moved to Paris where he worked as a freelance journalist. In Paris, he met Friedrich Engels (1820lar95), who introduced himself to the difficult and bad situation in which the laboring classes were .
Engels directed Marx to study economics. The two worked together and wrote together throughout the rest of Marx’s life. After Marks settled in London, he joined the International Employees’ Association. The last years of his life were the period when he produced some of his most important writings. Above all, he wrote Das Kapital (in his Pol Critique of Political Economy,). The first volume of the book was published in 1867, and the next two were published in 1885 and 1894 by Engels after Marx’s death. Because her health deteriorated rapidly in the last years of her life, Marx traveled around Europe (and one in North Africa), although her health did not improve. The deaths of his wife and eldest daughter also eroded in 1883
He is best known for his history analysis of the Communist Manifesto (1848), although he has ideas on many political and social issues: “The history of all societies so far is the history of class struggles.” Marx, as in all old socioeconomic systems, believed that capitalism would create internal dynamics that would lead to self-destruction. Just as capitalism replaces the old-fashioned feudalism, communism, a classless society, will take its place after the political transition, where “the state is nothing more than the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat.”
Marx looked at socio-economic changes from a historical point of view of necessity. Capitalism,
“The development of modern industry, under the bourgeoisie’s footsteps, the products themselves produce and acquire the basis on which they acquire property. Therefore, the bourgeoisie produced, above all, are their gravestones. (Communist Manifesto)
Marx, on the other hand, said that this change would come with an organized revolutionary movement. This change only takes place with the unified movement of the international working class:
“For us, communism is neither a situation to be created nor a fact that the truth will have to be adapted to it. We call the real movement that will put an end to the present situation into communism.” they are born of existing premises. (German Ideology)
Although Marx was not considered a famous figure in the world during his lifetime, shortly after his death, his thoughts shaped the world labor movement. The Marxist Bolsheviks’ realization of the October Revolution in Russia is the biggest example of this. In the twentieth century, the number of countries where Marxist thought has not been experienced in the world is quite small. Marxism is the most debated issue in academic and political circles.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer Yildirim Source: Omar YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd and 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lesson Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook