Who is Plato?
Plato (Plato) BC 427 BC. An ancient Greek philosopher who lived between 347 years.
Plato, whose real name is Aristocles, is known for his broad shoulders and athletic nature, nicknamed the Greek plateau (broad-breasted) , and is known. From the age of 20 until his death he was a disciple of Socrates and became a teacher of Aristotle , one of the most important philosophers in the history of philosophy . He is the founder of the Academy of Philosophy in Athens. Plato’s philosophical views are still being debated. Plato is also the first major philosopher to play a role in shaping Western philosophy.
In ancient Greek philosophy, pre-Socratic philosophers (the first philosophers or philosophers of nature) produced rather materialistic views. The materialist doctrine of ancient philosophy reached the highest level with the atomist Democritus , whereas the idealistic philosophy reached its highest point with Plato. Plato has benefited greatly from the fact that he was trained as an artist and especially as a literary writer, and he managed to impress people for centuries by decorating the intellectual products he designed with a masterful and poetic expression.
According to Alfred North Whitehead , a modern philosopher , all the western philosophy after Plato is nothing more than footnotes to his work. His views had a profound influence on Islam and Christian philosophy.
Plato wrote his works in the form of dialogues. The main actor in the dialogues is mostly Socrates. Socrates discusses his views with people and sets out inconsistencies in their views. Plato explained mostly the views of Socrates.
Plato argued that the external world we perceived was the imperfect copies of the real world of ideas or forms, that the truth could be reached only through thought and imagination. His views were preserved by Islamic philosophers in the Middle Ages and led to the New Platonic movement in the Islamic world of thought. After the Renaissance, translations from Ancient Greek in Western Europe were made.
Like almost all philosophers, Plato is the gibi child of his age ğu in trying to understand the problems of the society and age in which he is working, and to try to bring a solution to them. In this sense, the Greek civilization is slowly declining, even collapsed, which is the symbol of the great creator and symbol of this civilization. has been the most basic purpose. It can be said that both Plato’s most important guide is Socrates, both positive and negative, in both reading the crisis and determining the details of the solution. Plato, united with Socrates in the detection or diagnosis of crises, however, that philosophy was helpless in shaping the souls alone, It sees that individuals whose personalities have not formed cannot be reshaped only through reason and philosophy, or they cannot be changed by Socratic inquiry / refutation, and therefore reject a project of a political solution through Socratic moral reform based solely on intellectual persuasion. He considers the execution of Socrates by the new rulers as an expression of the inadequacy of the philosopher’s method and philosophy.
Plato, therefore, concludes that the philosopher has political power to succeed as a moral reformer, and that he must be a king as well as a philosopher. In other words, because the philosopher needs to be able to create the psychic order, which is the essential condition or essential component of virtue in the souls of the citizens, there is an obligation to be a political ally. It is inevitable that, in Plato’s eyes, the philosopher is thus able to control the state and shape his educational purposes, as he believes that the souls of the citizen require that the souls of the citizens be conditioned and conditioned in the order they are fit and shaped by the necessary exercises and habits. Taking into account the effects of the social environment on the souls of citizens, moreover, the moral reformer or philosopher must have absolute control over society. Failure and destruction of a moral reformer who is deprived of power, as in the case of Socrates, is inevitable.
It can be said that Plato did not find the way to solve the political crisis in Athens since the second half of the 5th century BC in the sense of an ın open society, that provides people with the opportunity to choose their lives and lifestyles in accordance with their free will. On the contrary, he believed that the yet open society en, which the Sophists represented, was based on the idea of a free choice devoid of phronesis, the knowledge or ability to separate the good from the evil. Plato, the greatest promoter of Phronesis, took the job of teaching this knowledge from Socrates, which he believed to be desperate in the face of the crisis, and gave it to the state that philosophers should represent. This is, of course, essentially abandoning the notion of democracy and open society, phronesise, what is really good, it means the transition to a model of a non-democratic, closed society where philosophers are ruled by the knowledge of what is bad and therefore olduğ a privileged perspective on the world n. Because the ”open society karşıya based on the assumption that not every person has the knowledge of truth and even ignorance, solves the problems they face by means of comparison and critical discussion as a process determined by public participation. However, the model of state and society envisaged by Plato assumes that the problems encountered can be solved not only by the knowledge of the good and the evil, but by the means determined by the state ruled by the philosophers who have ik a privileged perspective on the world “and the knowledge of the truth.
And this epistemology is based on a psychology that assumes that rationality can evolve, not by any attempt to disprove our cognitive hypotheses, as evidenced by open society theorists, but by going back to our own spirit and research. The epistemology of Plato, determined by such a psychology, is based on a number of beliefs. According to this, the existence of the soul must first be accepted. In other words, it is not enough to say that everyone has a spirit in the sense of being able to judge and judge through personal autonomy that is made possible by the open society. If that were all what it was, the selection problem that made Socrates understandable is the pursuit of the wrong values that he believed to have caused the moral and political crisis. It would remain unresolved as we could not obtain a kal privileged perspective on the world “. That’s why Plato needed something else. In other words, there was a need for a metaphysical theory in accordance with epistemology. According to Plato, u The human spirit is immortal. ”There comes a time, we reach the end that we call death, another time comes, reborn, but never goes away kal, yok all these absolute realities like beauty and goodness that we are always talking about themselves are really there, Bir he said.
Indeed, it is based on such a metaphysical understanding of Plato’s psychology, which argues that these absolute realities exist before the material life of the Ideals and the human soul. Such psychology, after all, allows Plato to move information out of social processes (which is the unfortunate place of “san ler or da convict Böyle). But this may not be enough. Because since our souls existed before entering into a body on earth, we cannot be able to approve someone who thinks differently from us since we will know everything. Ir Essences daha and souls need to be done in order to avoid concluding that knowledge is everyone’s knowledge, as our bodies existed before their arrival.
Plato, therefore, is the ground for the recovery of himself from an egalitarian theory of mind. Either we all come to the world with the knowledge of these standards [of Orions or Essences as Absolute Realities] and to preserve this knowledge throughout our lives, It is said that there are two alternatives such as remembering that they have learned, in other words, that knowledge is merely remembrance öğren. But that’s not enough.
Plato says that real knowledge is something that is related to g knowing what is and what is the state of being oz. As a result, philosophers, as the only ones who know the real existence, are in the hands of the monopoly of knowledge in Plato’s system. The philosophers, who hold the monopoly of knowledge in Plato, emerge as real educators who can make the souls turn into the light of the Good Idea, the divine source of the universe. But in order for them to fulfill these educational and political managerial missions, Plato must, in his words, be mel a governing or state order that fits the philosophical nature politik: eğitim One day, if he meets a state order that is appropriate to his own creation, it is revealed that he is indeed a divine being, and that the rest is both human and innocent in the works that they see. er It means that there is a divine part of us, which stands at the highest point of our body and has come from the sky, not from the earth. This means that the philosopher has a share of the divine nature. it means that it is a divine piece that stands at the highest point of our body and has come from the sky, not from the earth. This means that the philosopher has a share of the divine nature. it means that it is a divine piece that stands at the highest point of our body and has come from the sky, not from the earth. This means that the philosopher has a share of the divine nature.
Previously, Sophist Protagoras said that üs man is a measure of all things Daha. Yet Plato can now say that God is fil the measure of all that exists for you and me, ”since the divine measure is in the hands of the philosopher who has to hold power as a result of this situation. Indeed, the philosopher has to be the only legitimate holder of power because he is the sole trustee of God’s measure. And because the philosopher is the only one who knows the real existence, he can bring a content of action to everyone. It is not enough for social norms to define only the boundaries between various actions; since they are shaped by an encompassing and inclusive logic, they must also determine the content of each individual’s life. That is the practical philosophy in which Plato is intertwined with ethics and politics. despite all the power and depth of his theoretical philosophy, he stands out; for it is in the service of the practical philosophy, which is directed at overcoming the current moral and political crisis. Plato’s response to this, as a solution to overcome the crisis, “a privileged perspective on the world” with the management of philosophers, the spirit and the state should assume the role of educator is the thesis.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd and 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lesson Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook
Plato’s life and works
One of the greatest thinkers in the history of philosophy, Plato was born in Athens as the son of a noble family. He became a student of Socrates and was deeply moved by his views. From his forties to his trip to Southern Italy, his work was largely influenced by his teacher. His execution for the supporters of democracy led Plato to give up his political career and become an enemy of decisive democracy. B.C. In 387/388 he set up a school called Akademia in Athens. His relationship with Aristotle was also realized under this roof. He continued teaching at Akademia until his death. It is thought that all of Plato’s works have survived to the present day, and the order of writing of the prominent figures is probably as follows; Works of Socratic Period: Defense, Kriton, Ion, Lakhes, Kharmides, Euthyphron, 1st Book of Lysis and the State. Transient Works: Protagoras, Gorgias, Menon, Euthypdemos and Kratylos. Works of Maturity: Symposium, Phaidon, State and Phaedrus. Old Age Works: Theaetetos, Parmenides, Sophist, Statesman, Philebos, Timaios and Laws.
Plato’s conception of existence and the doctrine of ideals
Plato’s notion of existence is largely based on the doctrine of the Ideals and the doctrine of the immortality of the soul. The doctrine of ideals is based on the assumption that all visible things are related to the ideals that are beyond the visible world and independent from it. The visible and contemporaneous universe is separate from each other, and this makes Plato a metaphysical second. Ideals are structures that are not subject to time, not immune to any kind of change, beginning and end without any need for anything other than themselves, and can only be grasped by reason. However, there are objects that are heard; subject to time and space, constantly changing, beginning and end, are ideal for the existence of structures. Sensible objects are nothing but shadow from the copy of the ideals, they exist to the extent that they participate in it. Plato sees ideal as the true nature of visible things and often uses the word idea instead of the word nature. Thus, the ideals represent the completeness, completeness, original nature of visible things, and therefore all visible things try to resemble their ideas. Because as they look at him, they realize their own nature. Ideals also have an order within themselves, and at the top of this order is the Good idea. The Good idea, where all other ideals take a share of it and turn to it, is the unifying and all-inclusive principle of order in the universe. This high position of the good idea is based on the acceptance of Good and the identity of the being; , It is a good asset and the existence is good id (Arslan, 2006: 233). Plato Kindness, The ideals of Beauty and Justice are seen as identical. Thus, according to Plato, being, in essence, is both good and good and fair. Plato, as known by the principle of similar similarity, has given importance to making people capable of acquiring knowledge of the ideals of this abstract and mental structure. Therefore, he thought that the human soul was the structure that most closely resembled the idea and argued that the knowledge of the ideals could be obtained only by the soul.
Plato’s understanding of knowledge
According to Plato, the immortal soul acquired the knowledge of the ideals before this life, and therefore knowledge is merely a recall of knowledge that already exists. But the realization of this recall is possible through a systematic dialectic process. The dialectical method is based on two main activities; Ik Collecting disparate concepts in accordance with a general definition. And. Separating thought from elements of articulated joints iki In the first, it is essential to reach a general recognition that can explain equally all the examples of what is being tried. In the second, it is aimed to reach the basic and basic units that cannot be further analyzed and cannot be divided. Dialectical method, it is a process that raises people step by step in knowledge and reaches the end with the idea of Good idea or being contacted. Man, for example, first likes things, then he discovers the common qualities between them, and in the final stage he reaches into the beautiful of himself, the Beautiful idea (Symposium, 210 p.). This is the final point of the 2 dialectical march ik (State, 532b), where the soul is rising step by step. A hierarchical sequence is made between the objects of the information and the parallels of the divided line in the state. At the bottom, reflections, shadows and their beliefs, the world of nature and man-made things on it, and the knowledge of it, the world of numbers and geometric shapes on it and the episteme of it, and the ideals which are the domain of pure mind. exact information comes. At the top is the Good idea. Plato cavern of the people through the dialectical process through the cave to the true sun in the most succinct way.
Plato’s general characteristics of morality of happiness and sense of virtue
Plato regarded happiness as the ultimate goal for man and society. The understanding of morality was aimed at achieving happiness. According to him, the thing that provides happiness and goodness is virtue, righteousness and fairness. Plato defined virtue as the order of the soul. According to him, not only the soul, but a virtue of everything that can be mentioned that the virtue came from the order of virtue. Eudaimonia, the equivalent of the Old Greek in happiness, means that the person has a good and harmonious daimony. In this thought, happiness does not come from outside. The person who regulates his soul also provides for his own good and happiness. Virtue is the realization of the spirit’s own nature. Virtue, truth or justice, whether the soul, whether the site, by any nature of a structure to be the most suitable for itself, nature It is called virtuous when it is done according to the person who does the work that is suitable for him, to fulfill his / her purpose or good. Thus, the virtue of something is defined according to the natural purpose of the nature and nature of that thing.
Plato’s sense of soul, parts of the soul and its internal order
The term al the order of the soul ini, seen as the condition of virtue, implies that the soul is composed of various parts and that these parts must be in a correct relationship with each other. Plato likens a mythosta in PHaedrus to a carriage with two wings, one black and the other white, and a horse with a driver. The white one of these horses is docile and follows the driver’s instructions. However, the black horse behaves in a combative manner, in contrast to the instructions of the coachman. From this analogy, the soul exhibits a three-part structure; smart piece (to logistikon), hearted-dashing piece (to tymoeides) and appetite, desire to pieces (to epitymetikon). The hearty and dashing part of the mythical white horse, the appetite and thrust section associated with bodily pleasures and suffering, black horse, the mind located in the head corresponds to the drive. The part of the mind is immortal. The other two disintegrate with the death of the body. Plato argues that if these parts know their limits and are in their natural state, truth, justice, virtue will be realized in the soul. Reason, by its very nature, must obey the commands of the mind. If this happens, the soul will be able to reach the moral height and reveal the knowledge of the innermost hidden ideas. Once the order has been established in the soul, this order will serve as a basis for the order in the site and all other human structures. if these parts know their limits and they are in their natural state, they claim that truth, justice, virtue will be realized in the soul. Reason, by its very nature, must obey the commands of the mind. If this happens, the soul will be able to reach the moral height and reveal the knowledge of the innermost hidden ideas. Once the order has been established in the soul, this order will serve as a basis for the order in the site and all other human structures. if these parts know their limits and they are in their natural state, they claim that truth, justice, virtue will be realized in the soul. Reason, by its very nature, must obey the commands of the mind. If this happens, the soul will be able to reach the moral height and reveal the knowledge of the innermost hidden ideas. Once the order has been established in the soul, this order will serve as a basis for the order in the site and all other human structures.
Plato’s understanding of community and site layout, the elements of the site and the types of site layout
Plato’s understanding of site layout is based on the assumption that all existing site schemes are corrupted and that this disorder is due to the fact that the three high values, which are called “good”, “right” and “good Plat, are not at these sites. Plato’s understanding of society and politics aims to make these three values prevail over society and the site. With this feature, it is more moral than political. The site, like the soul, consists of three parts. These are the class of craftsmen, the ruling class consisting of military classes and philosophers. As in the soul and the universe, this site has a unique, natural position. When the pieces are positioned according to their natural structure, justice, accuracy and virtue are ensured on the site. The virtue of a human being depends on the correct positioning of the site. The wisdom of the ruling class, The virtue of the military class is courage, the virtue of the artisan class is proportionality. Dimension is also the virtue of all other classes. Justice and truth complete all these virtues. For intelligence, justice is wisdom, which means the truth of thought. Justice for will is courage, which means the righteousness of the heart, the dashing part of the soul. Justice for the impulse of the soul is proportionality, which means the accuracy of this piece. The philosophers who manage the site are obliged to repeat the knowledge of ideals in the layout of the site. The knowledge of fair and correct order, ie ideals, is inherent in every soul, and the task of philosophers is to reveal the knowledge of order in the souls of the citizens. Thus, the Platonic state becomes a large educational institution. Education is the most appropriate start for an accurate site layout. The aim of the training the spirit of every citizen is to have a guard, a right mind, that will restrain the wicked. Music is the most effective means to be used in the education of the soul. There are five kinds of people and five types of sites on earth. These are aristocracy, timarite, oligarchy, democracy and tyranny. The tyranny, which is the worst management, can easily be transformed into an ideal regime if the tyrant is young and open to education. Plato’s evaluations of political regime types are a summary of Greek political history. if the tyrant is open to education and is young, it can easily be transformed into an ideal regime. Plato’s evaluations of political regime types are a summary of Greek political history. if the tyrant is open to education and is young, it can easily be transformed into an ideal regime. Plato’s evaluations of political regime types are a summary of Greek political history.