Who is Rene Descartes?
René Descartes (March 31, 1596 – 11 February 1650) is a French mathematician, scientist and philosopher.
One of the most important thinkers of Western thought in recent centuries. It is accepted that modern philosophy has begun with Descartes.
Descartes, from 1628, 15 years of travel, after wars and adventures settled in the Netherlands, has established a philosophy system that subverted western thought. He began to suspect everything he learned, he saw, he heard, everything he believed in completely, erasing all of them altogether. Only one thing was sure: the existence of thought. From there, he made the description of the universe.
In his talk on the method, he always confused the complex and conceded the rules for the siege of the truth. He wrote philosophy in French, in an age when all of the study books were written in Latin, and said, “Common sense is the best in the world.” Descartes insists on the practical nature of any research. According to him, the most important sciences are mechanics; the art of treating medicine, body and soul; morality is the art of living happily.
According to Descartes, who brings a different approach to skepticism, the doubt is in two forms: septic doubt, methodical doubt.
According to him septic doubt is meaningless. It must be the methodical doubt. Methodical doubtHe applies good as follows: First he doubts about God, the environment, himself, and other people. This leads to the last limit that he cannot doubt. To doubt is to think. Thinking is to be there. ” I think I have it in case “ it reaches the point. The Latin word sözler De omnibus dubidantum ib is one of the most important words.
Descartes set out to bring the certainty of mathematics to philosophy, and to do this he applied the whole-wave and intuitive method. His deduction was deduction from the facts known to be precise, and all knowledge relied on clear and specific initial propositions grasped intuitively. The accuracy of the initial propositions in mathematics was intuitively known accuracy. Descartes thought that the propositions that would constitute the beginning for philosophy should be intuitively self-explanatory and explicit. Openness is a concept that can be given directly to our minds, and selectivity is able to distinguish the concept from other minds in our minds. Descartes proposed a four-step method for finding initial propositions to philosophy:
1. Not accepting anything we do not know correctly and clearly.
2. Divide each of the problems we investigate into as little pieces as possible.
3. Examine them from simple to complex.
4. Check back frequently and test the resulting data.
He basically doubted everything and finally concluded that he couldn’t doubt whether he was thinking or thinking.
With the proposition ti I think, so I am, erm he intuitively accepted the knowledge of his own self openly and distinctly. He founded the validity of God, of mathematical knowledge and of the knowledge we acquired on the outside world, from his relations with his own, and thus became famous as the founding father of the subject-oriented modern philosophy.
Descartes defines the substance as ve something that does not need anything other than itself ise and determines God as infinite substance, soul and body as finite substances. The essence of the substance is the essence of the substance. Of these, matter-body cannot exist without the substance. Length, width and depth of the substance form the nature of this substance. These are the primary qualities of material substance, and their characteristics such as color, sound, taste and temperature. The knowledge of the properties of elongation is appropriate to the quantity, that is, to be expressed in mathematical language. The physical nature of the material matter is governed by mechanical laws. Nature is a mechanical machine with all its movements. It does not contain any spaces. The space is nothing but the geometric concept of the material substance. How do these two different kinds of substances, which are not mutually reduced, exist in humans and how they interact with each other? Descartes argued that the soul and matter interact in the human brain in the cone of the cone, known as the mind-body relationship problem. Its neurology was based on four practical principles:
1. Conquer the laws, customs and religious beliefs of the nation.
2. Stay connected to your testimony and be committed to the action you have chosen.
3. Adapt yourself and your passions to your surroundings and your fortune.
4. Choose carefully your life’s work that will be the best for you.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University, Department of Sociology, Class 1 ”Introduction to Philosophy“ and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade ”History of Philosophy“ Lesson Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook