19th Century (Nineteenth Century) Philosophy of HistoryJuly 1, 2021
1.1. Hypothetical History
Historical knowledge is not intellectual knowledge. In order to look at history under the idea of progress, it is inevitable to design a finality in human life. Philosophy of history may be an effort to follow moral progress, not legal progress in history, under certain ethical postulates.
He states that we can see a progress towards such a goal in history when we lean not with the theoretical mind that looks at history as a chaotic and irregular course, but with the practical mind that works under the idea of finality produced by half power.
We can only seek a rationality in history to the extent that we have established it on the basis of our own mind, that is, a rationality shaped entirely according to our freedom. A “philosophy of history” cannot be made if and only if it is not without the idea that man is moving towards greater freedom.
1.2. German Philosophy of History
The same laws prevail in the political and moral world as in physical nature.
Philosophy of history is an attempt to look for a rational side about all human happenings.
morality; It is impossible to make sense of history without pursuing goals such as a perfect sense of art, wisdom and rational happiness.
1.3. Aesthetic History
Influencing especially Scelling in German Idealism and Romanticism through Schelling, Fr. Schiller adopts Kant’s view that we can only confirm the possibility of a philosophy of history with practical reason, not theoretical reason.
1.4. German Idealism
While the ‘I’ conceives nature as “a mechanical process that has its own integrity and determination under the design of an infinite time”; comprehends historical events as individual, individual and coincidental events in time circles.
It is an unconscious spirit, a single thing, a unity, a self-identical force that started everything in the universe and also developed with the universe it created.
* Reason dominates the world, therefore, there is a rational process in world history…
* Philosophy of history is nothing but the intellectual study of history.
* The spirit that reveals itself in history is nothing but the divine mind, and the mind of God dominates history.
According to Hegel, philosophy of history can be made in purely speculative knowledge, that is, under logically approved representations. Because the same mind prevails in history. In history, there is the same mind, the same spirit as the subject of pure thinking, and philosophy knows this spirit as its own essence. So, the philosophy of history will follow the development steps of the mind in the content of history and the way it manifests itself.
So much so that the Greek command to “know thyself” can only be fulfilled by grasping precisely these steps and modes. Because history “as its own action is nothing but its progress towards its own self-knowledge. This is freedom, and world history is the “process of progress in the consciousness of freedom”.
Nor is history ever a natural occurrence, as “the place where the spirit reveals itself, manifests itself”. For this self-opening essence is nothing but freedom, while in nature the spirit reveals itself as a necessity. Therefore, the essence of history is the action that man does with the consciousness of freedom, because he is only what he does and he acts for himself, where the spirit undoubtedly makes itself the object of its own consciousness, grasps itself by revealing itself for itself”. emotion forms as thought in philosophy.It is also, and lastly, the type of “power” that carries its essence to universal existence within the state, because the state is an organized view of all spiritual activities. Thus, it follows the developmental stages of the philosophy of history in the development of the people as “rings that connect to each other in a whole,” and in the “state types” they developed.
From this point of view, according to Hegel, there are four “-historical states that have cost world history: 1.Oriental 2.Greek 3.Roman 4.Christian-Germanic In this sequence, he sees complete progress within a triple dialectical stage: one in the East. one person (the ruler) is free, in the Greek and Roman world a few, whereas in the Christian-Germanic world everyone is free, because in this world there is “the consciousness that all people are on their own, that is, man is free as a human being”
In this development and progress, Hegel especially emphasizes the role of “individuals who have made world history”. These individuals, these “great people”, are those who feel and are aware that the world spirit is leading a new age, but at the same time the history of the world is moving with them to a new stage of development. But even these people do not know what their role is, and they belong only to themselves. They think they are trying to satisfy their passions to achieve their goals.
In fact, however, they are tools used by the world spirit. The world-spirit, in order to achieve its own purpose, “is fraudulently entrenched in human purpose and passions”, this “