According to Mu’tazile theologians, the relationship between belief and reason in IslamDecember 22, 2019
The majority of the Mutezile school theologians argue that knowledge of faith can be achieved through reason. Mu’tezile saw the knowledge of God through reason as a body and obligation for man. They think that the knowledge of man’s and his environment can be known with reason and that the knowledge of the creator and everything he creates can be reached with reason. They emphasize that Allah has not established an unreasonable order and that He has given man a sense of responsibility. The Mu’tazile Kalam, which most Western Islamic scholars call the r rationalists of Islam makta, attributes the necessity of knowing God to the benefit of humanity and considers it a moral obligation.
The reason why reasoning is accepted as a moral responsibility is that the mind serves to prevent harm and negativity from not knowing God. Mu’tazili representatives who think that everything within the scope of Nass should be judged by theoretical logic, that the mind is the same source of moral truth along with the revelation, that the mind is superior to transplant as the essential element of God, that the idea of God, which is the fundamental principle of Islam, and His evil ‘. i argued that their proposals could only be known with reason. A rational attitude that thinks that something is good or bad can be grasped through reason, because there is a cause and effect relationship between events, that Allah created wisdom as the cause of something else, that the mind is able to find these reasons and determine that something is good or bad. they claimed.
In Mu’tazili thought, the grounding of faith based on the relationship between reason and revelation is handled in a mental and linguistic framework. In this context, Kadı Abdulcabbar, one of the Mu’tazilite thinkers, bases his relationship between mind and transfer on the concepts of evil eye and sem. The reconciliation effort that Islamic philosophers attempted to establish on a mental basis between philosophy and religion turned into an attempt to reconcile between the evil eye and the sem ‘on a mental and linguistic basis. In this context, sem ‘is a concept that emerges in the context of the hearing of the apostle of God from God and the hearing of the same word from the apostle. In this respect, kelamullah is not an object of faith in terms of nature and awareness. According to him, the Qur’an is a product of the communication between God and his apostle and carries primarily a verbal content. So he He takes a mental and linguistic attitude towards the text of the Qur’an. With this attitude, Abdulcabbar opposes the approach that makes flatness the object of faith and bases its efforts on understanding on nass and formulates thinking on the basis of morality and responsibility.
Abdulcabbar sees as a set of principles that provide the categorical compulsory information that forms the basis of reasoning, and, in other words, as the process of processing this information provided by reason. In this context, it is the field of categorical information that makes it possible to make a connection between the subject matter of reason, thinking and reasoning. According to Abdulcabbar, God created the universe and made evidence for his own existence. Evidence, that is, research and reasoning on the realm of being, which consists entirely of signs, evidence and symbols, will lead one to knowledge of God. Therefore, thinking on the realm of existence (evil eye) is a necessity (vacip) to the person. This obligation takes precedence over other obligatory responsibilities imposed on the person (evvelu’l-vacibat). At this point contemplation, teemmül, undertaking, research, which includes meanings such as evil eye,
Muslim linguists of the classical period also took the evil eye in a similar sense. According to this, evil eye is the act of thought which enables to reach the unknown from the known. This action of thought can be realized by arranging the predecessors, causes and maladies. In other words, the evil eye is the reason that the mind activates other data and information in order to reach any information. Mu’tazili theologians who criticized the theory of faith based on the authority of the nassin, the majority of which hadiths, argued that faith based on imitation is not legitimate and valid without relying on thinking and any reasoning.
According to Abdulcabbar, there cannot be a legitimate basis for choosing one of the available options and maintaining it under imitation in a human environment in which there are different views and understandings, regardless of its level and quality. In this context, he sees God as equivalent to uniting imitation and denial, and does not accept that people are imitating in the knowledge of God as true and valid. Because man is obliged to reach the knowledge of Allah by means of thinking and reasoning.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Textbook