Archimedes (Archimedes) Who?December 1, 2020
Greek mathematician, physicist, astronomer, philosopher and engineer. The buoyancy of water allegedly found while bathing in a bathhouse is the best known contribution to science, but Archimedes is the source of the integral calculus according to many mathematical historians.
When the Roman general Marcellus besieged Syracuse, Archimedes had a hard time conquering the city because of the weapons the engineer had made. Most of these were mechanical devices and were inspired by some scientific rules. For example, with the help of reels, very heavy stones were taken up to the bastions and thrown very far with catapults. It is even rumored that Archimedes burned the Roman navy by using mirrors. However, despite all this, BC. In 212, the Romans conquered Syracuse and killed Archimedes, along with other notables of the city.
According to rumors; “Meanwhile, Archimedes makes calculations with the circles he drew on the sand. He doesn’t even mind the Roman soldier approaching with a sword raised to be shot in his neck. He says “don’t touch my circles” without removing his head from his accounts. The severed head of the Archimedes falls between the circles. “
Archimedes is both a physicist, a mathematician and a philosopher. He was in Alexandria for a while in his youth, where he became friends with Eratosthenes and later corresponded with him. Among the inventions made by Archimedes in the field of mechanics, there are compound pulleys, worm screws, hydraulic screws and burning mirrors. He did not give works on these, but left many works that made important contributions to the field of geometry of mathematics, static and hydrostatic fields of physics.
One of his most important contributions to geometry is that he proves that a sphere has a surface area equal to 4πr2 and a volume equal to 4/3 πr3. He proved that the area of a circle is equal to the area of a triangle whose base is equal to the circumference of that circle and the height is equal to the radius, and showed that the value of pi lies between 3 + 1/7 and 3 + 10/71.
One of Archimedes’ most brilliant mathematical achievements is that he developed some methods for finding the areas of curved surfaces. He approached the infinitesimal calculus while rectangularing a parabola cut. The infinitesimal calculus is to be able to mathematically add an even smaller part than the smallest part imaginable to an area. This account has an enormous historical value. It subsequently formed the basis for the development of modern mathematics and provided a good basis for the differential and integral calculus found by Newton and Leibniz.
Archimedes, in his book Quadrilating the Parabola, proved that the area of a parabola cut by the consumption method is equal to 3/3 of the area of a triangle with the same base and height.
The scientist who first introduced the principles of balance is Archimedes. Some of these principles are:
– Equal weights suspended on equal arms remain in balance.
– Unequal weights stabilize on unequal arms when the following condition is met: f1 a = f2 b
“Give me a fulcrum, let me move the world,” he said based on this work. word has not dropped from languages for centuries.
Archimedes also invented the law of the balance of liquids known by his name. According to rumors, one day, King Hieron II suspected that the goldsmith had mixed silver into the gold crown he had made and referred the solution to this problem to Archimedes. Archimedes, who could not solve the problem, although he had thought a lot, felt that his weight had decreased while he was in the bath pool when he went to a bathhouse to take a bath and jumped out of the bath saying “I found it, I found it”. What Archimedes found; The problem was that an object immersed in water loses its weight as much as the water overflows, and the problem was solved by comparing the water carried by the gold given for the crown and the water carried by the crown.
Before Archimedes’ research, it was known that the wood floated but the iron sank; however, the reason for this could not be explained. This law of Archimedes has shown that there is no place for coincidence in nature and that the same results will always be obtained under the same conditions. Archimedes, 23 centuries ago, found the laws of static and hydrostatic, which are still valid today, with an understanding very close to the modern scientific method understanding, and with these contributions, he deserved to be one of the three greatest heroes of the history of science.