Aristotle’s Studies in Logic, Aristotle’s Studies in Logic; Aristotle’s Logic and the Importance of Aristotle’s LogicJune 26, 2021
Even though pre-Aristotelian logic studies were not systematically, these studies were a preliminary preparation for Aristotle.
Taking these accumulations, Aristotle systematized logic as a discipline and made it a science of instruments.
Aristotle collected logic studies in his work called “Organon” and made logic a tool for correct thinking. The Organon consists of six books:
Later, Aristotle’s “Rhetoric” and “Poetics” were added to these books and they were published in eight books. Porphyrios added his own book “Isogoge” and collected it into nine books.
Aristotle’s Logic and Its Importance
The most important feature of Aristotle is that he created a new section, “Logic”, which can be said to be his own, without taking almost anything from his predecessors.
In the field of logic, Aristotle established a system of logic that was fundamental to the studies of logic until the nineteenth century. Aristotle, who saw logic as a tool for all kinds of knowledge acquisition process, defined logic as a speech “when something is accepted, other things emerge from them necessarily”. Aristotelian logic is a two-valued logic (accepting true and false values) based on the principles of reason (identity, non-contradiction, impossibility of the third state). Aristotle gave importance to deduction from reasoning methods. Because valid reasonings that give definite results can be made deductively. That is, for correct reasoning, first concepts are formed, then propositions are established, and finally inferences are made from these propositions.
Concept Formation > Proposition Building > Inference
As seen above, Aristotle first set out from concepts in order to think correctly. Because, according to Aristotle, concepts are the cornerstone of thinking.
The most important aspect of this logic is comparisons. In other words, it is correct to make a third judgment out of two judgments. To give a simple example:
Man is an intelligent animal.
Socrates is also human.
So Socrates is also an intelligent animal.
According to Aristotle, since the proof and the real knowledge can only be reached with the definition that will answer the essence of the objects, he establishes relations between particular-universal concepts, categorizes them and defines them. For this reason, Aristotle starts with classification and definition both in logic and philosophy. In these definitions, he creates the concepts that are the cornerstones of logic.
The method problem comes first in Aristotle’s understanding of logic. For this reason, he said that a scientific study can only be done through propositions. Because only propositions can be separated in two definite lines as true and false. However, propositions are also the union or distinction of two concepts.
Aristotle was the creator not only of the idea of separate sciences, but also of logic. For Aristotle, moreover, there was a close relationship between logic and science; because he thought of logic as a tool to be used in formulating the conclusions reached by science. Thus, even though logic is a discipline concerned with forms of thinking, Aristotle did not limit his interest in logic to an oriented analysis of the relation of propositions to one another. At the same time, he was preoccupied with the forms of proof, concentrating on the language used to reveal what things naturally exist and why they are the way they are.
This is why the logic that Aristotle called “analytic” was very close to what is called the scientific method in modern times. The scientific method, on the other hand, has to be about two things, at least as Aristotle understood it: (i) validity and (ii) correctness of an argument or inference. Suppose, for example, that we reasoned about metals as follows:
All metals expand when heated.
Copper is a metal.
So copper will also expand when heated.
This argument or reasoning is valid; Apart from being valid, it is also a proposition that satisfies us with its truth since its conclusion is also a true proposition. But also
All Turks are athletes.
Ahmet is a Turk.
So, Ahmet is also an athlete.
Let’s assume that we are making a very simple reasoning by saying. This second reasoning makes for an argument that is at least as valid as the first. But since its great premise is not true, neither is its conclusion. From this point of view, logic develops as a discipline that sets out the rules that will prevent us from thinking wrongly and reasoning wrongly. Examining and examining the formal aspects of arguments, reasoning, or inferences, Aristotle is careful to point out that the rules of logic that prevent us from thinking wrongly do not naturally enable us to find the right premises.
As can be understood from here, examining arguments or inferences in their formal aspects means first of all to look at their validity and to reveal valid thinking patterns. However, such a formal examination does not