Aristotle’s Understanding of Being, Philosophy of BeingJune 26, 2021
According to Aristotle, the appearances of beings are constantly changing. The thing that undergoes this change, that is, matter, always preserves its essence during the change.
According to him, his teacher, Plato, could not establish a convincing connection between ideas and phenomena, between the universal and the singular; because Plato thought of real existence as separate from phenomena.
For Plato, real existence is in the world of ideas that he names, and phenomena are copies of them. Aristotle, on the other hand, argues that real existence does not exist in a separate world like the world of ideas, but that it is in the essence of matter.
Despite all his attempts to establish this connection, the world of ideas remained as another world, separate from the world of phenomena. The doctrine of the Idea has separated essence and appearance, being and being.
The main problem of Aristotle will be to reunite these two worlds—one perceived and the other grasped by thought—in his real concept, which Plato separated from each other: A connection must be established between the idea and the phenomenon, so that this connection will enable us to explain what is perceived with conceptual knowledge.
Aristotle establishes this connection as follows: According to him, ideas are the essence of individual objects; their existence is the reason for their existence; It is the main task of philosophy to show that this is so.
In Plato, there are two separate worlds: the world of Ideas (the world that is real; the world that stands still, always the same with itself), and the world of sense (the world of things that come into being and disappear, things that change in length). For Aristotle, the world of ideas is within the world of senses.
Aristotle also thinks that the first and most important part of the being is the idea; however, he is a naturalist first and foremost, and therefore he aimed to know and know nature as it is, in the form provided by our sense organs. This feature caused him to oppose his teacher and close friend Plato philosophically. Aristotle explains this attitude as follows:
“Truth should be preferred between two good things like friendship and truth.”
We will continue to explain Aristotle’s philosophy of being in detail, under the following headings. What is the philosophy of being for Aristotle, you can follow the titles below to get more detailed and detailed information.
Metaphysics and ontology relationship
Aristotle’s asset classification
Aristotle and Plato’s understanding of being
The immovable mover: God
Aristotle’s four causes
Substance-accident relationship and categories
natural order and movement
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook