Bernardinus Telesius’ Understanding of the Philosophy of BeingJune 26, 2021
In terms of understanding of the universe, he asserts: All existence is based on the principles of matter and power. Power consists of two opposing elements; they are hot and cold; Hot causes expansion, cold causes contraction. Also, while heat brings dryness, the cold factor goes with damp or wet.
These two power factors are responsible for all forms or varieties of existence. But matter remains basically the same, despite being subjected to all kinds of forces. The coherence of the whole system is such that each separate thing develops in accordance with its own nature within these factors, and in its development both benefits and benefits from the rest. According to Telesius, it represents the Sun, which is hot in motion, and this Earth, which is cold.
This view of him, however, would have the misfortune of being refuted at the hands of Copernicus. But his removal of the border between the superlunar and sublunar worlds is a correct prediction and is a point that none of his predecessors thought of. Their explanation of the relationship between matter and mind also opposes traditional explanations: material forces can be affected by assumption – they can feel; matter must have been endowed with consciousness from the very beginning; Because consciousness exists, as it is, it could not have come from non-existence. The soul has a structure that is affected by material conditions. Because the fabric of the soul is material.
“The soul is a good substance that contains heat, it is concentrated in the brain and spread throughout the body. The soul holds the parts of the organism together and initiates their movement” (Thilly, 2007 13). As can be seen, this approach of Telesius reduces the spirit to matter, thus challenging the dualist approaches that see the spirit in spiritual structure and accept it as a substance opposed to matter. However, at the end of this whole scheme, perhaps under the influence of theological pressures, he accepted an element completely foreign to the system; a higher driving force; There is another type of spirituality that has been added by God to our existing spirituality: Through this kind of immortal soul, we are able to go beyond the world of the senses.
The idea that there is an immortal part of individual souls is also a point put forward by Averroists, as we have seen above. However, after declaring that the individual soul is mortal, it is contradictory to claim that it also has an immortal part. After he said, “Even the mind is nothing more than a collection of isolated data coming from the senses”, his assertion of such an abstract and immortal principle is incompatible with his concrete and empirical explanations.
According to Telesius, matter is conscious from the very beginning, and the fabric of which the soul is made is material.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer Yıldırım
Source: Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM)