Characteristics of Philosophical Thought

Characteristics of Philosophical Thought

December 21, 2019 1 By Felso

Knowledge is one of the leading conditions of existence in maintaining human life and is the product of thousands of years of human activity. This situation; The different life layers show that the knowledge of the specialty area has some common characteristics and continuity.

Although a definite classification is not possible, the main agreed upon features attributed to the philosophical way of thinking are questioning (problem-oriented), wondering, suspicious, critical, reflexive, cumulative progress, rational (reason-based). , being systematic, being consistent and being universal (Figure 1.5).

Characteristics of Philosophical Thought

Questioning: The  most important and distinguishing feature of philosophical thinking is that it is questioning. The first step in solving a problem in philosophy is to ask questions. Questioning; It is an attempt to understand and to reach the truth by asking questions systematically. According to Socrates, the meaning and value of life begins with its questioning.

Don’t worry:  Curiosity is the state of mind that drives man to new searches. Wonder; It is the desire to know that activates the mind, which lies at the basis of science and philosophy. The curious person tries to question and reach the truth through this curiosity. Curiosity in philosophy can be understood as wanting to know life and trying to understand it.

Don’t doubt:  Philosophical doubt opens the door to new questions and allows you to develop a different view of the world. Blindly accepting a thought is an attitude that does not conform to philosophy. The philosophical attitude is that information is not accepted correctly unless it is subject to mental control and makes sense. Therefore the first step is to doubt. Philosophical doubt has a specific purpose and system, it is not random.

Astonishment: Astonishment in  philosophy means more than a sense of surprise. The philosopher does not accept the world as usual. The world does not come as a surprise to most people with the influence of habits and presuppositions. Accepting everything as it doesn’t seem like a problem, but that’s not the case for the philosopher. A philosopher is a person who may be surprised by the fact that he sees everything for the first time. In this way, philosophy differs from ordinary thoughts. The first step in looking at the world with a new eye is astonishment. The amazed person wonders and begins to investigate.

Staged progress:  Philosophers have given different answers to similar questions since philosophy first emerged. Stacked refers to the fact that philosophical thinking has a quality that affects and advances with each other. This progress is not a quantitative accumulation as in science. Philosophical thought; science, art and much more. The philosophers who influenced each other contributed to the common knowledge.

Criticalism:  Criticality is to filter a mind rather than accept it for what it is when considering any thought or view. Critical thinking; It is a way of thinking constructed by reasoning, analysis and evaluation processes. While a problem is being handled, subjecting it to a number of tests, dismantling the constituent whole and evaluating it by revealing its good and bad aspects can be expressed as the basic elements of being critical.

Reflexivity:  Reflection is the reflection of thought to itself or to another thought, while thought may be directed to any object or situation. Thinking of a tree is not reflection. However, perception of the tree and thinking about what the idea of ​​tree is is reflection. Reflections on existing knowledge, art and opinion can also be considered reflexive.

Being rational:  Being rational means being rational or rational. Philosophy is a mental endeavor in terms of subject and method. Being rational also means that philosophy is not only a mental activity but also complies with the principles of reason and reasoning.

Systematic:  Philosophical thinking has a coherent structure which is organized. The philosopher who expresses his thoughts in this structure constructs his own system and creates a model of explanation for his thoughts. The ideas within this model are gradual and interconnected. This bond forms the basis of a holistic view.

Consistency: Consistency in  philosophical thought means that the steps of thought do not contradict each other by containing opposite thoughts, that is, they are appropriate. Since it is not possible to prove every philosophical thought in a factual sense, the evaluation will be more about the internal consistency of philosophical thought. The consistency of the basic thought steps that make up an opinion does not contradict each other or is compatible with each other.

Universality: The state of  philosophical problems that exceeds the age and applies to everyone. The fact that philosophy deals with the problems of all humanity and that the philosophical accumulation is formed with the common contributions of many civilizations makes it a universal value. In philosophy, it is possible to talk about the universality of questions rather than answers.

After knowing what something is, it can also be instructive to draw conclusions about what it is not. In this sense, the answers to the question han What are non-philosophical ways of thinking? Ol will be distinctive. Instant thoughts that do not rely on questioning and grounding, do not seek the right information or the right action; for example, reasoning for daily interests, sudden reactions to an event, impulses based on impulses, unimagined dreams, simple convictions or prejudices are not considered philosophical thinking.

In order to understand what philosophy is, it is necessary to look at close thoughts, namely the natural and human sciences, the issues that they associate or differentiate with mathematics and art. Of course, scientific knowledge is the work of researcher, poet poet, technical knowledge technician. The sciences deal with a particular subject, the particular one. Science; it is based on autonomous “objective” work from emotions and convictions, based on its findings to observation and experience and to prove them. Artistic thinking is also the way of thinking that supports the language, expression and original products where the artist’s feelings and thoughts are at the center. Although these ways of thinking are not direct philosophical ways of thinking, the more the fields of knowledge are diversified, the more information increases, the greater the opportunity to reach the right information and opens the horizon of philosophy.

Philosophy contributes to science and art. Poetry, technical knowledge and the idea of ​​science; philosophical perspective. In addition, “philosopher poet-poet philosopher” or şiir philosophy in poetry-philosophy in poetry mümkündür is possible, but the poetry or philosophy is different forms of activity. Poetry When you say im Science is to know for yourself veya or when scientists question “What is number?”, “What is the meaning of what I do? Düşünme, the thinking style in these attitudes is more philosophical thinking than poetic or scientific. Although science, art and philosophy cannot be reduced, they support each other.

What is important for man is not only to read philosophy and to know philosophy, but to do philosophy, to be able to behave philosophically or to adopt a philosophical attitude. Making philosophy requires philosophical thinking.

It is thought that people who have assimilated philosophical thought are not content with the first information they can see not only trees but also forests, they can look forward and in the background, they can not think superficially and can penetrate the subjects.

Philosophical thought is the result of asking questions depending on the curiosity and wonder of the human being and it is a critical and questioning type of thinking against the problems related to human and human life. Those who have embraced philosophical thought are those who transcend dogmaticism, are not prejudiced and view events from a wide angle.

* In philosophical thinking,  questions are more important than answers . Because the answers given in philosophy are not final and final answers. Therefore, the search for answers to these questions always continues uninterruptedly.

* Philosophical thought is a reflexive  thought ( Reflexive thought  is the reflection of the thought on itself). In other words, philosophical thinking is not only one-sided thinking. It is also to question the questioning itself or the result of the questioning. This is a two-way thinking.

* Philosophical thought is a  critical and questioning  thought.

* Philosophical thought  is  a thought based on reason . There is no possibility to verify or falsify the propositions put forward in philosophical thought. Because propositions cannot be confirmed by testing with the facts as in science. The propositions put forward in philosophical thought are sought to be consistent for themselves.

* Philosophical thought is  a thought  based on grounding.

* Philosophical thought   has functions such as analysis and synthesis .

* Every philosophical thought is the original  view of the philosopher who put forth that thought  . Philosophical thought is therefore subjective.

*  Everything  is the subject of philosophy. For this reason, philosophical thought is a universal thought in terms of its subjects.

Source:  Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Year “ Introduction to Philosophy ” and Giriş Introduction to Sociology ”Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM)