Characteristics of Science, What are the Features of Science?June 28, 2021
The qualities of science or the characteristics of science can be listed as factuality, precision, selectivity, logicality, universality, generalization, criticality, and systematicity, respectively. The characteristics of science or the characteristics of science are explained one by one and in detail under the following headings.
FEATURES OF SCIENCE, FEATURES OF SCIENCE
1. Science is factual
Science expresses directly or indirectly observable phenomena. In science, no theory or hypothesis is considered true unless it is proven based on the results of observations or experiments. For example, “The world is round.” proposition is factual. It can be said to be true or false by observations.
2. Science is certain
A skeptical and critical view is very important in reaching scientific knowledge. The selection of research topics and the research process take place with this skeptical and critical view. When the research is completed, the results reached by the scientific method are considered final. For example, “All objects fall at the same speed in the vacuum”, which is reached after examining the fall of different objects in vacuum by the physicists. It is a law whose judgment has been accepted with certainty.
In this case, without contradicting the precision principle, “Not all objects fall at the same speed in a vacuum.” I cannot say that I have observed it. Logic and mathematics are formal knowledge and their inferences are mental. Therefore, its conclusions are full of precision. However, certainty in the natural sciences is not absolute. Certainty in the natural sciences is information that is defined as having a very high probability level. In social sciences, on the other hand, since people who have variable characteristics over time and society elements in relation to people are taken as the basis, science in these fields should be more careful when making claims of certainty.
3. Science is selective
The phenomena happening in the universe are endless in terms of variety and number. Every science chooses facts about its subject from among them and does not deal with others. Biology examines questions about biology, physics studies questions about physics. Since the phenomena happening in the universe are infinite in variety and number, it is both unnecessary and impossible for science to deal with all of them. For this reason, the facts that are the subject of scientific research cover only a small part of all facts. All scientific observations and experiments become effective only when they focus on certain facts in the light of a certain hypothesis.
4. Science is logical
The results of science are self-consistent and far from any contradiction. In addition, science uses the rules of logical thinking and inference in the process of verifying a hypothesis or theory. It is necessary to renew scientific data in every condition and situation and to reveal the reality of the results. Science is more of a discovery and validation process than a set of results. Science seeks to achieve its purpose by constantly testing and correcting our assumptions or expectations about the world.
Science is logical.
5. Science is universal
It belongs to all humanity. When we look at the history of science; It is seen that the first important steps in the study of astronomy, mathematics and medicine were taken in the Indian, Sumerian, Egyptian and Babylonian civilizations, developed in the Islamic world between the 8th and 12th centuries, and extraordinary successes were achieved in the West during the last 400 years. Science contains relationships that do not change according to place and time. Science emerges as a result of a certain accumulation. Every new knowledge develops by integrating with previous knowledge. Science, for all its factual soundness, is relative knowledge. Instead of absolute truth and infallibility, truth is approached with temporary truths. The results obtained with scientific information consist of generalizations with a high probability of validity.
6. Science is generalizing
Reaches generalizations based on similarities by establishing relationships between cases. It deals with general facts, not individual events. For example, the marriage of Ali and Ayşe does not matter in terms of social science. But the phenomenon of marriage is of interest to social science. Sociology “Monogamy is common in societies where women enjoy economic freedom and equal rights with men.” gives general results such as Science deals with types of facts, not with individual facts. For this reason, classification constitutes the first step of scientific research. For example, propositions such as water boils at 100 degrees and copper is conductive do not refer to individual facts, but to properties related to unlimited scope of phenomenon classes.
7. Science is critical
In the scientific method, no matter how plausible the claims put forward, the critical approach is not abandoned. Every theory or view in science is accepted as “true” as long as it is supported by facts. He does not give up his critical stance in the face of every claim, no matter how reasonable it may seem. For example, while it is accepted that the smallest piece of matter is the atom, it has been revealed that there are also small pieces of atoms due to the critical attitude of science. In this sense, science is a self-correcting process.