Christian Philosophy, Basic Characteristics of Christian PhilosophyDecember 24, 2019
Christian philosophy is a name used for Western philosophy in the process that started with the emergence of Christianity and continued until the 15th century. The philosophy put forward to justify the Christian religion is called Christian philosophy.
Christian philosophy differs from the phrase of philosophy of religion which has a general meaning only by being unique to Christianity . In fact, all the philosophical doctrines put forward by Christian thinkers (idealism), in particular objective thought, are purely a Christian philosophy. Because they have been put forward to reinforce and base Christian deity. Berkeley , Hegel and so on. thinkers openly link Christianity in their teachings. The term Christian philosophy, however, is generally understood as religious fictions put forward in terms of the Christian church.
The medieval period of Western philosophy, which is based on ancient Greek philosophy, is entirely a Christian philosophy. BUSINESS. After the closure of the last Greek schools in the 5th century, Western thought was almost exclusively on Christianity for a decade. Christian philosophy is divided into two periods called patristic and scholastic. Christianity is basically a few poems that Jesus says in a primitive sense of publicity. It was necessary to find a philosophical basis for simple words. The fathers of the Christian church who had to fight Greek stoicism in the early years, this intellectual foundation was first taught in Plato’s teaching and then Aristotle. found in the teachings. The patristic period is Plato and the scholastic period is Aristotle. The distinctive feature of both periods is that it links philosophical problems to certain indisputable dogmas. For centuries, Christian thinkers have sought to make clear the contradictions in these dogmas understandable. The dogmas of Christianity, which emerged as a Jewish sect, are in fact the dogmas of Judaism. Christian philosophy arose from the aim of supporting these dogmas and was the servant of Christian theology (La. Ancilla Theologiae). Almost all thinkers of this age are clergymen, servants of the Christian church (La. Ancilla ecclesiae).
This means that Christian philosophy is in the service of the sacred Roman church empire (La. Sacrum Imperium Romanum) and can be shaped according to its commandments. This is contradictory to the true meaning of the concept of philosophy. In this respect, it can be said that Christian philosophy is a continuation of Ancient Greek idealism within the Christian religious dimensions. Moreover, Christianity is inherent in Greek stoicism. God of Christianity: Parmenides ‘ being, Socrates -the good ruler of Platon, Aristotle’s first mother, Plotinosis a mixed product of one of his thoughts. In addition, another British historian, Edward Gibbon, in his book The Decline and the Fall of the Roman Empire, found that Plato had found a secret doctrine of Logos (Logos Doctrine), which was undoubtedly the basis for Christianity. It was kept secret and taught to Plato’s students secretly, this ear-to-ear doctrine was explained by the Jewish Jewish theologian Phile, and Phile theology was one of the main sources of Christian theologians. (See Ibid, c 1, p. 572 et al.).
This doctrine of Plato explains how the transition from the abstract world of Ideals to the concrete material world, which is indeed a vacuum in the Plato system. According to Plato, this transition was made by the power of a Creator, the Creator (ie God), a spiritual force, which removed the material creature from his being by creation. The Creator-Creation-Creation trinity is the basis of the Christian father-son-holy spirit trinity, as well as the basis of Aristotle prudence.
In the process of dissemination, Christianity has come across with some philosophical views. Philosophy criticized the principles and explanations of Christianity. In order to defend these criticisms against Christian religion, philosophical doctrines ( idealism ), in particular philosophies of objective thought, have been developed by Christian thinkers . These thoughtful doctrines, with an idealistic worldview, and in their most widespread form, put forward the non-material spirit or God with religious doctrines. The philosophy of objective thoughtism also refers to philosophical doctrines that take on a more abstract appearance than religious doctrines and assert that a spiritual essence exists before the universe on the basis of the universe without specifically mentioning the idea of a God.
The philosophy of the philosophers who support these ideas is also known as apology . Although this defense philosophy was opposed to some philosophical views in the early days, it became a religious explanation in time. The medieval period of Western philosophy, which is based on Greek philosophy in ancient times, is completely a Christian philosophy. After the closure of the last Greek philosophical schools in the 5th century BC, Western thought was considered only for religion and in particular Christianity for a decade, and the philosophy in this process was called Christian philosophy or Christian philosophy.
During this millennium, religious beliefs and philosophical ideas have fused and religion has started to play an effective role in all areas of philosophy. Negative reflections of this effect can be attributed to the exclusion of science in addition to philosophy in this period. In this period, philosophy and science centers were closed one by one. To give an example, in the 5th century, the Library of Alexandria, thought to have the largest literary archive of its time, was burned and destroyed on the grounds that scientific and philosophical studies were damaging to Christian thought. This destruction is considered to be one of the most profound events affecting world history of science. For similar reasons, the Greek Academy was closed in the 6th century.
In this period, it was thought that belief made information possible. Naturally, the aim was not to carry out scientific studies in order to obtain new information, but to obtain information by trying to understand the sacred.
Son Christianity olarak emerged as a new religion and a new organization in this last period of the Antiquity, in which we outlined the basic currents of thought. Christianity, in terms of its source, is one of the various Hellenistic worship in Rome.
B.C. presumably in the 1st century we saw that the Hellenistic religions began to hold on to Rome and establish their organizations. However, these religious movements from the East, in time, have been in conflict with the official religion of Rome. Because the religion of Rome gradually became a state religion.
A Hellenistic religion. adherence was not an obstacle to staying within the framework of official religion and worshiping the emperor. The fact that the Romans embraced the existence of many Gods made it easier to be connected to various religions at the same time. However, the basis of all Hellenistic religions is the idea that “the soul is immortal”.
It is necessary to look at the reason of the great activity gained by the religions from the east in Rome, especially at this point, in the promise of immortality to the individual. The official Roman religion, on the other hand, was a cold state religion that had no interest in the future of individuals.
The idea that the spirit is not mortal in Hellenistic religions is related to another understanding. In these religions, a God who first dies and then is reborn is accepted; that is, it is believed that God, first defeated to death, defeated death afterwards. A person who believes in such a God is promised that, after passing through certain ceremonies, he will participate in the end of this God and will be resurrected just like him. These views, which are common to all Hellenistic religions, constitute the characteristics of the first Christianity.
At the beginning of the first Christianity we find two main ideas: First, the cause of death must be sought in “sin.. Because people have turned away from God by sin, so they cannot participate in destiny and are condemned to death. In order to survive, one must not sin.
However, one cannot avoid sin only by his own means or by his own power. To save man from sin, God must gerek intercede edip (forgive) and save him from sin. Thus, we have come to the second main idea of Christianity: God has become human in the presence of Îsa Î. God did not appear to be a great hero, a great emperor, but rather a humiliated, poor and poor person.
In this poor human form, God perceives his own death as a person who has suffered many insults and eventually has been crucified to death. But after his resurrection three days after his death, God proved his immortality. A man who joins the destiny of this God, who first dies and is resurrected, will be resurrected after death, just like him.
With these views, Christianity, which is in common with other Hellenistic religions, has ılan separates ”from them. Christianity differs from other Hellenistic worship by the appearance of God as a insan poor person de, not in the presence of a great person. This idea has become a crucial point for the widespread spread of Christianity. With the help of this view, Christianity had the opportunity to become the religion of the “working” classes, which existed to a great extent in the late period of antiquity.
The second point that separates Christianity from other Hellenistic worship is the idea that “death is a result of sin alınmış, which is actually taken from Judaism. We know that the idea that the universe is a battlefield of good and evil forces, and that evil arises from defeating God, was also encountered in pre-Christian times. As a matter of fact, the New Platonicism brought the good and the evil confronted and considered the good and the evil as an opposition of God and nothingness. On the other hand, Christianity admits that the war takes place between “God” and “Satan.”
The third point that distinguishes Christianity from other Hellenistic religions is the yas prohibition of entering another religion inin of a Christian person, rooted in Judaism. Judaism is the only religion in the Antiquity who wanted to connect only believers to it. Judaism regards the Gods of other religions as an “idol..
In other words: Judaism is the only “monopolistic religion eyen in ancient times that asked believers to worship only the Jewish God and forbade them to believe in other Gods. Judaism is a narrow religion that has limited community and gives its believers certain advantages. This religion, which is based on a small community, did not engage in missionary work, that is, to bring new people to Judaism. However, Christianity is a d missionary d religion since its beginning.
Christianity, like Judaism, strictly forbids its believers to worship other Gods. It is clear that this prohibition also includes the official Roman religion and forbids Christians to worship the emperor. The source of the conflict between the Roman state and Christianity, which was a big problem later, should be sought in this “Forbidden..
In the late Roman religion, worship of the emperor became increasingly important, thus becoming an dini emperor religion an that deified the state in the personality of the emperor. However, Christianity forbade the emperor to worship and offer sacrifices from the beginning because of his monopoly about his own God.
This disagreement between the two religions led to a conflict between the Roman state and Christianity, which eventually led to a “prosecution ilgili of Christians. This practice, however, strengthened Christianity rather than weakened it. Because this practice, which led to the emergence of many stubborn religious oppressed, Christianity had the opportunity to gain resistance and prove its value and importance.
The important thing is that at the end of this practice, Christianity had to make a solid and well-established “organization.. However, none of the other Hellenistic religions could form a church or an ummah organization. By organizing Christian believers in congregations, it gained the power of the state as if it were the state. The completely independent organization of the new religion caused the state to oppose it.
In this period when the organization of Christianity was strengthened, the Roman state organization had started to lose its power. The political organization of the empire, which had to make heavy attempts to survive, had lost much of its unity and solidarity.
During the dissolution of the Roman state, Christianity emerged as a growing force day by day. As a result, there was a moment when the Roman emperors felt the necessity of leaning on the Christian organization. As a matter of fact, Constantine, the follower of Diocletion, who made the most violent and latest practice in the field of Christians, had to remove all the prohibitions on Christian monitoring and officially recognize Christianity. Julianus, a follower of Constantine, wanted to revive the Roman religion on the basis of the New Elataphatism, but this attempt, as it is known, was not successful.
In the new religion, inde publishing olm has attracted attention. The first publication under Christianity has nothing to do with philosophy. The earliest Christian works were written in the İn four Gospel ”cadres, which in fact explained the life and thoughts of Jesus. The four Gospels, first written 30 years after Jesus’ death, and 90 years after the death of Jesus, are, of course, works that do not deal with Jesus’ thoughts in a realistic way, but rather stem from belief in Jesus’ personality and doctrine.
Christian philosophy, which has spread over an extremely long period, is classified into two basic periods. These are the Patristic and Scholastic periods.
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Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Philosophy Textbook, Yolculuk Journey to Philosophy ”Frank Thilly