Classification of Ancient PhilosophyNovember 25, 2019
Excluding Indian and Chinese culture, Ancient philosophy or Ancient philosophy, Hellenic philosophy, It is divided into two as Hellenistic philosophy.
In other words, in the first class, which is the common cultural heritage of both Christian philosophy and Islamic philosophy and the spiritual basis of Western culture as a whole, similar to adopting the same teleological worldview with Medieval philosophy, Ancient philosophy based on historical, cultural and geographical elements, philosophy and Hellenistic philosophy.
Of these, the Hellenic philosophy, which corresponds to the first 300-year period of ancient philosophy, corresponds to its most intense, strongest, brightest period. Compared to Hellenistic philosophy, which is relatively much longer or about 700 years old, it has almost all the opposite characteristics. According to this, Hellenic philosophy starts with the separation from religious or mythopoetic thought and starts with the belief that natural phenomena should be explained for natural reasons instead of supernatural reasons; Hellenistic philosophy reapproaches to religion and gains a mystical character, especially in its later periods or in Neo-Platonic philosophy. Where Hellenic philosophy is pure in terms of both naivety and non-mingling with other cultures, Hellenistic philosophy is a philosophy that has lost its purity in Greek, at least in terms of being mixed with Roman culture and partly with Eastern philosophy.
The natural political decor of the Hellenic philosophy is the city-state. However, in the political decor of the Hellenistic period there was an empire; During this period, the philosopher tried to find solutions to the heavy problems of the people who became alienated and alienated in the world where the imperial order expanded its borders. As can be understood from this, Hellenic philosophy developed as a purely rational philosophy, believing that it was purely theoretical and comprehensible in every aspect of the universe, even though it was at times interested in ethical and political issues. However, Hellenistic philosophy is a practical philosophy that focuses solely on the moral problem, leaving almost all other disciplines of philosophy aside; He,
Historically starting with Thales, Aristotle Hellenic philosophy, which lasted until 322, when he died, is divided into three as Presocratic philosophy or philosophy of nature, Socratic philosophy or philosophy on Human and Systematic Period or Great Socratic Period. The Hellenistic-Roman philosophy of ancient philosophy, which began in the last quarter of the 4th century BC and continued until the 6th century AD, consists of two main ages or epochs of philosophy. The first is the philosophy of the Hellenistic era, which officially corresponds to the historical period between 322 and 331 BC. The main schools or philosophies of the Hellenistic philosophy are the Stoic, Epicurus and Skeptic schools established in the Greek world next to Plato’s Akademia and Aristotle’s Lykeium. The second main epoch of the period consists of Roman philosophy.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook