Criticism of Karl Heinrich Marx (Marx)June 27, 2021
Criticisms of Karl Marx and Marxism mostly focus on the practice of the Soviet Union. The rate of criticism for Marx’s analysis of capitalism and economics is well below the rate of criticism for communism and the Soviet Union. The definitions of surplus value, exchange value and capital put forward by Marx are accepted as correct in economics.
Many advocates of capitalism argue that the production and distribution of wealth is more efficient and equitable than socialism or communism. While stating that the gap between rich and poor as stated by Marx and Engels is only a temporary problem belonging to the period of brutal capitalism, he says that human nature is closer to self-interest and capital accumulation, and that an economic system other than capitalism is not suitable for this situation. Austrian School economists also criticize Marx’s labor theory of value. In addition, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the fall of the Berlin Wall reduced the popularity of Marxism and the influence of Marxist views worldwide.
In his book, The Road to Serfdom, Friedrich Hayek says that communication problems will occur in a socialist economy, that they also existed in the Leninist era, and that these problems would lead to a blockage in the production process. Hayek’s followers also point to the famines that occurred during the Leninist period or the wartime democracy period in Britain from 1939 to 1951, adding that this created injustice.
Some criticisms also gather on the concept of historical materialism. Those who criticize this view, saying that events and classes in written history stem from the mode of production, “Where does the mode of production come from?” poses a question.
Murray Rothbard says:
“Marx never tried to give an answer to this question, in fact he could not, because if he attributes technological changes or the state of technology to a person, the whole system collapses. In such a case, human consciousness or individual consciousness becomes the factor that determines the mode of production, and another way is possible. is not.”
However, Marx says in “Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy”:
“In the social production of their existence, men establish between them certain relations which are necessary, independent of their will; these relations of production correspond to a certain degree of development of their material productive forces.”
Here Marx says that these modes of production develop “independently of their will” and explains the social nature of this development.