Dialectical Understanding of Different PhilosophersJuly 1, 2021
Heraclitus: Heraclitus, the father of dialectics, did not know and would not use this term. But, with the phrase “many things and everything from one thing”, which claims that the universal formation takes place through the war of opposites, it denotes universal dependence, change and development, the unity and sameness of opposites. These genius insights, which Heraclitus sometimes naively expressed, will make Hegel, another great dialectician, say, “Heraclitus has no words, let me not have taken it into my logic,” centuries later.
Socrates: According to Socrates, dialectic was a method of procreation. With this method, Socrates would reveal opposing thoughts in a discussion and try to bring the truth to life by analyzing them (by synthesizing N.).
Zeno: According to Aristotle, the founder of dialectic is Zeno of Elea. Aristotle could not see the dialectical nature of the philosophy of Heraclitus and considered Zeno, who found and revealed the contradictory aspects of the concepts, as the founder of dialectic. Zeno used dialectic as the art of refuting it by starting from the principles accepted by the other with his famous proofs.
According to Aristotle, dialectic is the logic of reasoning that leads to wrong conclusions. He cannot come to definite conclusions, he wanders over probabilities with meticulous attention to detail. This understanding of Aristotle necessitated the disdain of dialectic for centuries.
Plato: According to Plato, dialectic is a very useful art to reach unheard ideas from sensible information. “When a hypothesis is established, it is necessary not only to examine what comes out of it, but also to see and understand what comes out of its opposite.” According to Plato, it is impossible to think of an idea independently of other ideas.
Ancient Greeks called the speech of two opposing people dialogos, and their discussion dialectic. The concept of scientific dialectic used today has nothing to do with these ancient meanings (it is related, changed, developed N.)
Kant: Kant used dialectic in a negative sense in accordance with Aristotle’s thought, and according to him, dialectic is a logic of wrong thinking.
Fichte: After Heraclitus,-Socrates-Plato, Fichte is the first thinker who skillfully used the dialectic that Aristotle discredited. According to Fichte, knowledge is formed by transcending opposites. Knowing something means first seeing it, then distinguishing it from others, and then getting to know it with others.
Schellin: Schelling, the second thinker of the great triad of German idealism, transfers the dialectic from Fichte’s intellectual process to the natural process and makes it the law of natural development. According to him, not only knowledge but also nature develops by overcoming oppositions.