Early Period of Scholastic PhilosophyDecember 23, 2019
It coincides with the period of exit from the cultural destruction caused by the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. In a new phase of social regulation and cultural revival, scholastic is seen in the field of philosophy.
Johannes Scottus (810-887) should be mentioned as the first scholastic thinker. His translations and lectures brought mysticism to medieval thought. He used a concept realism similar to Plato’s theory of idea, and he developed a kind of neo-plantonism. He argued that the existence of God is in fact unknown, but that God can only be known through symbols. The symbols are not God Himself.
Although it took place in this first period, Anselmus, considered to be one of the most influential thinkers of all scholastic philosophy, is another name to be remembered (1033-1108). In particular, Anselmus went on the path of Augustine, gave a clear and definite content to his orum I believe to understand ”, and tried to ground the highest mystical assumptions of faith with reason. All existing things are grounded by an absolute existent; likewise all goods are based on absolute good. Here, it is attempted to prove the existence of God with an inference that clearly considers the concept of universal realism, that is, universal concepts. Anselmus has achieved its original reputation with ontological evidence. Accordingly, if God is by definition the most competent good, it is a logical contradiction that the most competent good does not exist,
Roscelinus (1050-1125) is the founder of nominalism in medieval philosophy. As opposed to concept realism, nominalism does not admit that universals are beings in themselves, they are merely the names expressed by the common aspects of objects. Roscelinus states that what actually exists is particular objects.
There will be a controversy going on between these two trends throughout scholastic; nominalism is the orientation that brought about the dissolution of scholastics. This discussion will be referred to as the debate on universals in the history of philosophy. [History of Philosophy, Macit Gökberk, Remzi Bookstore, page 163]
As another important figure in scholastic philosophy, Petrus Abaelardus was a student of Roscelinus, but he followed a more averaging path in the debate of universals. He became one of the most influential philosophers of his time with his rich debates in this direction