Emergence of 20th Century Philosophy, How did 20th Century Philosophy Come into being?December 25, 2019
20th century philosophy, social events dating back to the present and 18-19. This is a rising philosophy on the philosophical inquiries made by philosophers of this period.
In the course of these interrogations that began in the West, some philosophers have changed in philosophy and created new main currents in philosophy.
Age philosophers and thinkers who remain insensitive to the problems in Turkey are influenced by both the mainstream and contributed to the formation of a new philosophy. In order to understand these changes in philosophy, it is necessary to look at the background of the era.
Before the 20th century, humanity experienced events that had a profound effect on life. The French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution are among the most important of these events . Their effect is seen to spread all over the world, especially in Europe. Intellectual movements in the 19th century, social class struggles and wars between some states are the first serious examples of these effects. The fundamental changes in socioeconomic and political conditions that accompanied and continued this led to the first and second world wars in the 20th century. In order to understand the emergence of philosophy of this period within the framework of the mentioned events 18-19. century philosophies and their effects.
18-19. century philosophy; it can be considered as a philosophy in which philosophical, scientific and sociocultural accumulation from the emergence of philosophy in general is questioned by enlightened philosophers. The influence of this philosophy on 20th century philosophy lies in the thinking of enlightenment philosophers. During the transition phase of these ideas to the 20th century, some philosophers ensured the transition and took part in the philosophy of the 20th century after the transition.
Towards the 18th century, the view of philosophy under the influence of science has changed, and progress in mathematics and physics has led to the search for precise knowledge in philosophy. The main problem is the question of what the truth is and how it can be known when questioning the nature of knowledge. Philosophies formed in this respect are focused on knowledge and existence.
Descartes “I think I’m there then. Var
Descartes argues that only intelligence can provide clear information as a result of his own existence. He says that this information is innate in mind. Therefore, he argues that knowledge of reality and all beings connected to it can be reached with reason.
E The human mind is an innate blank sign. Lev
J. Locke opposed Descartes’ conception of innate knowledge and states that it was later acquired through sensory data. According to him, man cannot know the properties of objects (beings) which he cannot make impression through the senses because the potential of his senses is an obstacle for him.
Kant üz Visionless concepts are empty, conceptless vision is blind. K
Kant takes the discussion to another dimension by synthesizing these two views. He has placed a boundary between what is visible and invisible in the views of knowledge. He argued that objects have sensory properties that are in themselves and appeal to the senses. According to Kant, man can never know what the objects are in himself and cannot be expected to have knowledge of this field. He sees the knowledge of the visible sides of beings in the processing of innate forms in mind as a result of the experience of that being.
In the evaluations on Kant’s view of knowledge, the views that supported it, which showed alternative ways or partially or completely rejected it came to the fore. The discussions made within the framework of these perspectives are important in the emergence of the 20th century movements.
Towards the middle of the 19th century, the understanding of empiricism based on scientific method (induction) began to overwhelm the view of rationality in the information advocated by Hegel, Descartes and partly Kant. The rise of experimental sciences offered another solution to the problem of what truth is and how it can be known. It was thought that the subject was the objects and that it could be known with the knowledge provided by the scientific method. Simon and A. Comte are among the influential advocates of this thought by the period.
Hegel “The real is the mental, the real is the mental.”
Hegel, who criticized Kant’s advancement of knowledge in his thoughts about knowledge and being, states that existence should be the subject of knowledge before knowledge. According to him, philosophy can only be the philosophy of being, and man can grasp philosophy and the idea behind the object. According to Hegel, this concept is possible through concepts. Philosophy is the way to bring people to these concepts that express the truth of history. It is the duty of philosophy to answer what is being.
Comte put forward the view of positivism. This idea based on materialist understanding is important in terms of its rejection of metaphysics. Positivism argues that there is nothing real outside the phenomenon and that only scientific knowledge based on experimentation involves knowledge of the truth. In other words, what is real to them is factual. In this respect, their views are important for the interaction of 20th century philosophy with science.
When the results of the French Revolution were evaluated, it started to come to the view that the social order based on justice and equality which was put forward by those who wanted the revolution could not be reached. Under the leadership of the positivism movement, there were those who were looking for a new order in France. Critics of the Industrial Revolution have also escalated in England and the search for new orders has started to be seen there. The idea that there was no fair distribution in society encompassed Germany and encompassed the whole of Europe and the 20th century. Socialism spread rapidly among the political thoughts that came to the fore in these searches. Hegel was the most critical thinker in this respect. In line with the developments in Europe, new ideas emerged in philosophy.
Marx, who was influenced by his ideas of materialism and positivism as well as his objection to Hegel’s philosophy, became one of the pioneers of socialist thought. Marx’s views are dialectical materialism. Marx says that Hegel’s dialectical thinking, which he thinks is upside down, is dialectical; applied to human history on the basis of economy. Therefore, he transformed Hegel’s historical idealism into historical materialism on the basis of economics.
Sören Kierkegaard “Face the fact that you are, because that is what will change you.”
Another philosopher who opposed Hegel’s philosophy in Germany as of the 19th century was Sören Kierkegaard. The importance of this philosopher is not only his objection to Hegel’s philosophy; He influenced 20th century philosophy and for that he was one of the pioneers of existentialist philosophy. Kierkegaard’s critique of Hegel is that Hegel’s philosophy in general is that there is no chance of an individual being subjectively present. Hegel states that he has established an objective system for the mapping of mind and reality and does not include a subjective existence in this system. Therefore, Kierkegaard opposes the view of objective reality to the view of subjective reality. According to him, the real is existence.
18-19. century philosophical debates led to the emergence of positivism, dialectical materialism and existentialist philosophies in 20th century philosophy. At the same time, these philosophies have turned into some main currents in contemporary philosophy.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook