Emergence of 20th Century Philosophy, How Did 20th Century Philosophy Emerge?June 28, 2021
20th century philosophy, social events up to the present and 18-19. It is a philosophy that rises on the philosophical inquiries made by the philosophers of this period for the debates in the philosophy of the 19th century.
In the process of these inquiries that started in the West, changes in philosophy have occurred and some philosophers have created new mainstreams in philosophy.
Philosophers and thinkers in Turkey, who were not indifferent to the problems of the age, were both influenced by these mainstream trends and contributed to the formation of new philosophies. In order to understand these changes in philosophy, it is necessary to look at the background of the age.
Before the 20th century, humanity experienced events that deeply affected life. At the beginning of these events are the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. It is seen that their influence has spread all over the world, especially in Europe. The intellectual movements, social class struggles and wars between some states in the 19th century are the first serious examples of these effects. The radical changes that took place in socio-economic and political conditions along with and after them caused the 1st and 2nd World Wars in the 20th century. In order to understand the emergence of the philosophy of this period, 18-19. It is necessary to look at the philosophies of the 19th century and their effects.
18-19. century philosophy; In general, it can be considered as a philosophy in which the philosophical, scientific and socio-cultural accumulation coming from the emergence period of philosophy is questioned by enlightened philosophers. The influence of this philosophy on the philosophy of the 20th century lies in the thoughts of the philosophers of the enlightenment. During the transition phase of these ideas to the 20th century, some philosophers made the transition and took part in the 20th century philosophy after the transition.
Towards the 18th century, the view of philosophy under the influence of science changed, and the progress in mathematics and physics led to the search for precise knowledge in philosophy. The main problem is about what the truth is and how it can be known in inquiries about the nature of knowledge. The philosophies formed in this respect have focused on knowledge and existence.
Descartes “I think therefore I am.”
Descartes, as a result of questioning his own existence, argues that only the mind can provide clear information. He says that this information is innate in the mind. Therefore, he argues that the knowledge of reality and all beings connected to it can be reached with the mind.
Locke “The human mind is an innate blank slate.”
J. Locke opposed Descartes’ view of innate knowledge and states that knowledge is acquired later through sense data. According to him, a person cannot know the properties of objects (entities) that he cannot make an impression with, because the potential of his sense is an obstacle for him.
Kant “Concepts without sight are empty, visions without concepts are blind.”
Kant takes the discussion to another dimension by synthesizing these two views. He has set a boundary between the visible and the invisible in his views of knowledge. He argued that objects have properties that appeal to the senses. According to Kant, human can never know the things that are in the objects themselves, and it cannot be expected that humans have the knowledge of this field. He sees the knowledge of the visible sides of the beings in the processing of that being with innate forms in the mind as a result of the experience.
In the evaluations made on Kant’s view of knowledge, views that support him, show alternative ways or partially or completely reject him have come to the fore. Discussions made within the framework of these perspectives are important in the emergence of 20th century movements.
Towards the middle of the 19th century, the understanding of empiricism based on scientific method (induction) began to overtake the rationality view in knowledge, which Hegel, Descartes and partially Kant also defended. The rise of the experimental sciences offered another solution to the problem of what truth is and how it can be known. It was thought that the subject of the experiment was the objects and that it could be known with the knowledge provided by the scientific method. As of the period, Simon and A. Comte are among the influential advocates of this thinking.
Hegel “The real is rational, the rational is real.”
Hegel, who criticizes Kant’s precedence over existence in his thoughts on knowledge and existence, states that existence should be the subject before knowledge. According to him, philosophy can only be a philosophy of existence, and people can grasp the idea (idea) behind the object with philosophy. According to Hegel, this concept is possible through concepts. The way that will bring people to these concepts that express the truth of history is philosophy. It is the task of philosophy to answer what existence is.
A. Comte “Humanity has finished the theological and metaphysical period and entered the positivist period.”
Comte put forward the view of positivism. This idea, which is based on a materialist understanding, is important in that it rejects metaphysics. Positivism argues that there is nothing real outside the fact, and that only empirical scientific knowledge includes knowledge of the truth. That is, according to them, what is real is factual. In this respect, their