Emergence of Nagarjuna philosophyJune 27, 2021
Nagarjuna philosophy, which constitutes the heyday of Indian philosophy, arose from the confrontation of different Buddhist and non-Buddhist schools from their perspectives.
Indian philosophy It started in the 1st century and was influenced by different cultures. In the written period, the Sutras and additionally explanatory commentaries appeared. In this philosophical competition environment, Buddhism was questioned for the first time by non-Buddhists, thus bringing with it various topics, discussions, questions and answers. For example, epistemological questions arose, such as whether it is possible to find the truth, the need for explanation that reappears after the end of rebirth, and whether reality exists. The theory of causality arises because these questions are directly tied to the law of karma. Nagarjuna developed two models in the expert, reliable Vedas:
Samkhya Teaching (harmony of cause-effect connection)
Veishya Teaching: It is a completely opposite view of Samkhya. Indicates that the results have no relation to the causes. (Cause-Effect difference)
Other models of causality have also been developed in non-Buddhist schools. These:
According to the Jainist understanding, the result of actions comes from the person. Jainist philosophy questions how results come to be. Outcomes, like actions, depend on one’s free will. Jainists later advocated the Samkhya doctrine.
fatalistic approach; It emerged as an opposition to Determinism, which has strict, moral and ethical rules. Man has no chance to escape the cycle of rebirth. Salvation depends on actions. Man will face his actions.
The materialist understanding rejects the general principles of Indian thinkers. They accept neither the cycle of rebirth nor Karmas. For them, life will end with the death of the body. The world was formed by chance without being bound by any law. They argue that the world and all beings are made up of the combination of four elements (fire, air, water and earth). With these views, they opposed Hedonism (Hedonism).
Only two of the 18 Hinayana schools agreed with these differing views. Sarvastiva and the Sautrantika School questioned the foundations of reality and existence. There have been fierce debates on these issues, and these two schools have expressed different views.
Sarvastivads argue that the past, present and future are a whole and that they cannot be considered separately. They emphasize that it is all action and reaction. Sarvastivads characterize reality factors as “existence”. This understanding is against the view of the Sautrantikas. For the Sautrantika, existence is not entirely real. Nagarjuna has given all these common causality models in quatrains in the first chapter of his book. Below is the basic view of Nagarjuna’s “middle way” teachings.
Nagarjuna philosophy is similar to the view of the Sarvastivads. According to them, the factors of existence are endless. Sautrantikas, on the other hand, argue that the factors of existence are not infinite and depend on a vacuum. Nagarjuna expressed this understanding with the following sentences: “Existence is a void. Man finds the middle way with this emptiness.”