Emergence of Philosophy, EmergenceDecember 21, 2019
Philosophy first emerged in the 7th century BC in Miletos (Miletus), an important trade center and port city in the Ionian civilization.
In the period from the pre-Christ to the birth of philosophy, the cause of everything was sought in mythology. In explaining things, interpretations of events and objects were developed by making inferences on religious foundations. For example, events such as lightning that took place as a natural phenomenon could be interpreted on a religious basis as the Gods were angry with humans and as a result of that they shouted and summoned spears at the earth. However, the philosophy that would emerge in the Ionian civilization sought for the realization of this lightning event for another reason and tried to provide a logical explanation for this situation.
In the 6th century BC, ancient Greece lived in the style of city-states with developed economies on the Mediterranean and Aegean coasts of today’s Greece and Anatolia. They synthesized the activities of other civilizations in their fields of thought, science, technique and mathematics with their products in this field. The fusion of this synthesis with the mythology which was the belief of that period revealed the philosophy. Today, Thales is regarded as the first philosopher of philosophy, the common accumulation of humanity.
Ionia, which is accepted as the place where philosophy emerged, is the name given to the coastline of today’s Izmir and Aydın provinces in Anatolia in the Ancient Age. It is a civilization established around the Miletus, Ephesus, Foca and Izmir by Akalar who fled Greece after the Doric invasion. Before Ionia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India and the Turks dominated the land of important thought systems developed. But since the religious and mystical (mythological) components of these thought systems are widely used, they are not called as philosophy . Ionian thought system of philosophy is the main reason for peeling and considered independently of religious and mythological description of this thinking mind is based.
It is not the work of chance that this thought structure, which is called philosophy, first appeared in Ionia as a systematic and mere mind-based thought system. The city of Miletus, which is heavily influenced by Mesopotamia, Egypt, Iran and Phoenician cultures, is a busy port city where agriculture and maritime activities are highly developed. In addition, the soundness of its economic structure brought about the development of social knowledge and tolerance in this city. In other words, the environment in Miletus is tolerant enough to allow different beliefs and thoughts. Science, trade and so on. The people of Miletus, who turned to things, created the birth of philosophy in this free environment.
This favorable environment has allowed the emergence of thinkers like Thales. In this process which started with Thales (624-546 BC), natural phenomena were tried to be explained again for natural reasons and the belief that the human mind was sufficient.
According to all these, the emergence of philosophy has been subject to some conditions.
These conditions can be listed as follows:
– The emergence of philosophy is the result of a high level of prosperity (people must have time to think about people, society, life, etc.).
– Philosophy; as a result of cultural wealth, knowledge, open-mindedness.
– The existence of an environment of tolerance that will allow different beliefs and thoughts to be brought into the environment has been extremely effective.
– Finally, the human factor stands out as the sine qua non of philosophy. Human factor; It is a premise based on one’s curiosity, astonishment and hunger for knowledge.
Ionia is a cradle for philosophy, and it is here that philosophy first emerged. The first person to realize this condition at that time was Thales of Miletus. Thales did not confine himself to the explanations of Greek religion and mythology, but developed a system based on reason.
There are multiple beginnings for philosophy. The historical order of events is tried to be done by coming from the past to the present and rather by going from the present to the past. The question acak what is the beginning and the end? Göstermek shows which subject is thought about rather than the time problem. What can be regarded as valuable for philosophy is to be considered as a separate beginning for cultures that process problems and try to reach the right information.
First of all, there is a sufficient level of awareness in all of the cultural formations, that is, the most important feature of philosophy, düşünme thinking on it ”, as creating a culture requires knowing more or less. In this sense, it is possible to think that all cultures within the broad definition of philosophy are effective at the beginning of philosophy.
Secondly, more systematic thinking beyond the free associations of being-being, knowledge, and value can be considered the beginning of philosophy. For example, the ancient name “wisdom” or “sophia içer contains practical wisdom. In many civilizations, there are advice about virtue and righteous life.
Third and more distinctly, philosophy is “theoria.” In this sense, philosophy utilizes all kinds of experiences, metaphors and connotations, including everyday, but concentrates around a problem and tries to understand the various dimensions of the problem mentally. Philosophy; it is in the distinction of the rational and the irrational. It is an attempt to understand what is happening universally (finding its essence, setting common principles).
The emergence of philosophy as oria theoria ilebilir can be considered as a common result of many cultures and civilizations. Especially in the Egyptian and Sumerian civilizations epics, mathematics, geometry, astronomy, such as information on the basis of philosophy is possible to see. In addition, ancient Chinese, Indian, Iranian civilizations of faith, wisdom, the source of philosophy in the doctrine of true life. Along with all these, philosophy has the effects of Eastern wisdom and knowledge and has become systematic with Ancient Greece.
Map 1.1 shows some of the civilizations in which philosophy emerged.
– Two essential conditions for the emergence of philosophy: Welfare and Curiosity
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Year “ Introduction to Philosophy ” and Giriş Introduction to Sociology ”Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM), MEB Philosophy Textbook