Emergence of Philosophy, How Philosophy Appeared?

Emergence of Philosophy, How Philosophy Appeared?

November 25, 2019 0 By Felso

Opinions about the emergence of philosophy are mostly based on acceptances. These assumptions are the result of interpretations of many oral and written information (history, anthropology, archeology, etc.). The new knowledge to be obtained may change the existing assumptions, but according to the agreed knowledge, philosophy emerged in the 6th century BC with the systemization of the sciences, beliefs and teachings of different civilizations which could be the basis of philosophy.

Some philosophers come into prominence in the emergence and systematization of philosophy. These are as follows:

Thales (Tales)  (625-546 BC)
Lao Tse (Lao Tze)  (604-520 BC)
Anaximandros (Anaximandros)  (610-547 BC)
Anaximenes (Anaximenes)  (585-528 BC)
Pythagoras (Pythagoras)  (570 BC ) 495)
Confucius (Confucius)  (551-479 BC)
Heraclitus (Heraclitus)  (540-480 BC)
Parmenides (Parmenides)  (515-460 BC)
Anaxagoras (Anaxagoras)  (500-428 BC)
Protagoras (Pratagoras)  ( 490 BC ) 420)
Gorgias (Gorgias)  (480-380 BC)
Socrates (Socrates)  (469-399 BC)
Democritus (Democritus)  (460-360 BC)
Plato (Plato)  (427-347 BC)
Diogenes (Diogenes)  (412-323 BC)
Aristotle (Aristotle)  (384-322 BC)
Epicurus (Epicure)  (341-270 BC)
Zenon (Zenon)  (333-262 BC)
Karneades (Kanedes)  (214-129 BC)
Cicero (Cicero)  (106-43 BC)
Seneca ( Seneka) (  65 BC-4 AD)
Epictetus (Epictetos)  (AD 50-135)
Aurelius (Ayreylus)  (AD 121-180)

Human life; It enables development, training and transfer of knowledge from generation to generation in terms of the capabilities it carries, and to create cultures and civilizations. This opens the way for human beings to shape their conditions of existence at different levels and shapes; it creates diversity in their understanding of the world and themselves. The social and cultural history of man is unique in every culture and civilization. In every civilization, myths, fairy tales, mystical doctrines and experiences have created certain knowledge before the development periods of philosophical thoughts and disciplines.

Philosophical thought has become systematic in ancient Greece. The concepts of cosmos and virtue in Sumerian, Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Chinese, Indian and Persian civilizations; it was effective on philosophical thought in terms of formation and development.

In Mesopotamia and Egypt, many elements of the pre-writing period are mentioned. However, their transition to “written” culture is more important. The formation of written language, teaching and transferring it; the production of writing materials (tablets or parchments) required the opening of schools. This also means the production of supernatural thinking. It is assumed that the written culture was crossed with Sumerian (cuneiform) and Egypt (hieroglyphic writing). For philosophical thought, these cultures are seen as firsts. The Sumerians wrote Gilgamesh Epic and Hamurabi Laws on clay (clay) tablets. These are the first great examples of thoughts and civilizations in written culture. However, Egypt and Sumerian civilizations, especially mathematics, geometry,

In Indian beliefs, it is essential to purify man from evil and overcome desires. The ways to achieve this are not intuitive knowledge and reasoning techniques, but intuition and internal experimentation. The qualifications they acquire in this life also determine the level of life after death. The purification of man from desires leads him to the supreme being, Brahman, to be reached. The basis of Indian beliefs is the idea that “water ında is the origin and living source of everything in the creation of the universe. These include the idea that the cosmos (the universe) was built and derived from a transcendental imagination.

In 1000-600 BC in Zoroastrian, Iran proposes a dualistic understanding: In Ahuramaz, Ehrimen of the visible and invisible universes is the creator of evil and falsehood. The creatures are created as they are. In Mani’s principles of faith, both good and evil are eternal: light (good) and dark (bad). The world has formed from a mixture of both. The goal of the Mani faith is to expose the sphere under the rule of Ehrimen and enlighten the enlightened human body. God Zervan, the sovereign power, represents this with the power of reason and will.

In China, it is the individual who is true in the belief of Taoism. Mysteries are tried to be reached with a mystical knowing. Through the trance, a sense of unity of the universe is reached by going out of sensory knowledge. The belief that Lao Tse is the leader believes that the universe is what it is. Everything that exists, Tao (the right way of the universe, the essence) is the principle of virtuous life. The most superior way of life for man is to unite with Tao with superior intelligence.

Prepared by:  Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source:  Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Philosophy Textbook