Epicurus (Epicure, Epicurus) PhilosophyJune 26, 2021
Epicurus developed a moral philosophy and the main idea of philosophy is happiness (eudaimonia). It states that the main goal is to achieve happiness. The task of philosophy was determined accordingly, to investigate the path of man to happiness. Apart from this goal, Epicurus did not deal with the abstract discussions of classical philosophy. Logic is also a tool that enables the production of knowledge necessary to reach the right life. There will be no right action without right information; the criterion of true knowledge has a dual basis, the first being the sense data and the second the sensations of pleasure and pain.
According to Epicurus; man must be freed from the fear of god and death. This can be achieved by getting rid of delusions and prejudices. At this point, the effects of Democritus’ atomist theory interfere with Epicurus’ philosophy. Everything in nature consists of the movements of atoms in space. Only this movement does not occur by mechanical necessity. With this idea of nature, Epicurus tries to exclude the concept of God. The presence of God does not indicate his absence, but rather his indifference to the world.
He also proposes a material explanation for the soul, according to him, the human soul has a material quality, it cannot exist otherwise. In order to explain the material existence of the soul, Epicurus states that it consists of four elements. Fire, breath, air, and a fourth element that cannot be named. The first three form the bodily part, and the fourth element constitute the spiritual part. When a person dies, these elements disperse, that is, they lose their unity. So there can be no such thing as immortality or soul-transmitting.
In a sense, the approach to death, which had an impact on the fame of Epicureanism, is based on a word of Epicurus;
“Fearing death is pointless, because as long as we live there is no death, and when death comes, we are no more.”