Evidence of God’s Existence, Evidence of God’s ExistenceJune 29, 2021
Evidence of God’s existence is a thought process within the framework of the philosophy of religion. One of the most discussed issues in the history of thought is religion and the phenomenon of God it contains. In this context, the existence or non-existence of a God has been discussed in every period. The arguments put forward for the existence of God can be listed as follows: ontological proof, cosmological proof, design proof, teleological proof, moral proof.
PROOF THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
Ontological Proof of God’s Existence
This is also called ontological proof. It was used for the first time by St. Anselmus (1033-1109).
It is the understanding that tries to prove the existence of God by starting from the concept of God. The person who put forward this proof for the first time is Saint Anselmus. God is the most perfect (perfect) being that can be conceived. A competent entity cannot be competent if it does not exist.
One of those who put forward this proof is Descartes. According to him, man is an imperfect being. But in an imperfect person, there is the idea of a perfect being. Man cannot put the idea of being self-sufficient. Because man is not a perfect being. That is to say, a competent being has given man this thought.
God here is “absolutely perfect being”. Its presence is mandatory. It is a being that cannot be conceived more perfect than itself. In this case, the most perfect subject of thought is God.
It is called ontological proof because the existence of God is proved by His existence. Its existence is essential in thought, it is logically impossible to ignore it even for a moment. Because to think that God does not exist means to say that he is not the most perfect being, which means that the quality of existence is diminished. It is unthinkable for a deficient being to be God. Existing things outside of it also gain “existence” by participating in it and taking a share from it. God is absolute being, absolute good.
The Ontological Argument differs greatly from both arguments for the existence of God in that it does not rely on evidence in any way. As you mentioned earlier, the Design Argument is based on evidence regarding the nature of the world, objects, and living things; The First Cause Argument needs less evidence than the Design Argument; it is based solely on the observation that some things exist rather than nothing.
Whereas, the Ontological Argument is an attempt to show that the necessity of God’s existence is precisely because the definition of God means the supreme being. This inference is also known as an a priori argument because it is prior to experience.
According to the definition of the Ontological Argument, God is the most perfect being imaginable, or, as in the famous formulation of the argument by St Anselmus (1033-1109), “the being from which nothing greater can be grasped.”
One of the aspects of God’s perfection or greatness is his existence. A perfect being certainly cannot be perfect if it does not exist. After all, it is assumed that the conclusion that God exists is necessarily present in the definition of God, just as the sum of the interior angles is 180 degrees by definition of the triangle.
This argument, used by many philosophers, including Rene Descartes (1596-1650) to the fifth of the Meditations, has convinced very few of the existence of God; however, it is not easy to see exactly what is wrong with this argument.
R. Descartes explains this proof in his Meditations:
I have in my mind the idea of God as the supremely perfect being. A being that is deprived of one of the qualities of perfection cannot be the supreme perfect being. So it would be contradictory to think that God, the supremely mature being, is deprived of the qualities of perfection.
Presence is a competency attribute. To be deprived of being, then, is to be deprived of competence. It would be contradictory to say that God, the most perfect being, would be deprived of existence. The existence of God, then, is an integral part of the concept of God.
After all, God truly exists.
This proof of Descartes is based on the following proof, which must be placed before all items: If it is seen clearly and distinctly that A logically contains B, it is understood that A actually contains B.
Accordingly, Descartes starts with the concept of the perfect being, and then proposes the “necessity of its existence” for such a being; that is, in a way, it introduces the “necessary being” as the middle term and finally moves from concept to reality. So, according to Descartes, God seals the idea of ”perfect being” into the soul of every human being he created.
On the other hand, Spinoza gives place to ontological proof in his work called Morality. According to him, having an idea about God is like trying to perceive a substance. Being belongs to the meaning of the ore. Therefore, God is a necessary substance.
According to Leibniz, the attributes of power, knowledge and will are consistent with the concept of being.