Existence and Knowledge ProblemJune 26, 2021
When the first true philosophers appeared in ancient Greece about 2,500 years ago, the first thing that aroused their curiosity was the world they lived in and surrounding their entire lives.
the earth and the various forms of life that inhabit it; the Sun, Moon, visible planets and stars; They saw climates, earthquakes, and lunar and solar eclipses. They realized that traditional myths and legends about the gods were insufficient to explain all this, and they sought something to satisfy their curiosity and intellect.
Here is the first question that preoccupied these early philosophers: “Why was the universe made?” was, and the question soon expanded: “What is the nature of all that exists?” took its form. This is a form of question belonging to the field of philosophy that we call metaphysics today.
Existence and Knowledge Problem
Although much of the original question has been answered by modern science, “How is it that something happens instead of nothing?” Metaphysical questions like these are not the type to be answered so simply. Because we exist as a part of the universe, metaphysics also considers the nature of human existence and what it means to be a conscious being. How do we perceive the world around us and can everything exist independently of our perception? What is the relationship between our mind and body, and is there such a thing as an immortal soul? The field of metaphysics deals with questions of existence, ontology forms the basis of much of Western philosophy.
Once upon a time, philosophers attempted to put common knowledge to the test of logic, and another fundamental question arose: “How do we know?” The study of nature and the limits of knowledge formed the second important branch of philosophy, epistemology. At the center of epistemology is how we gain knowledge, how we know what we know; whether some (or all) knowledge is innate, or whether we learn it to live. Can we know something just by reasoning? These are crucial questions for philosophical thought, as we need to rely on our knowledge to reason correctly. We also need to define the scope and limits of our knowledge. Otherwise, we cannot be sure that we really know what we think we know, and that we have not been somehow “fooled” into believing it with our senses.
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and “Introduction to Sociology” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (ÖmerYILDIRIM)