Existence and Knowledge Problem

Existence and Knowledge Problem

When the first true philosophers appeared in ancient Greece about 2500 years ago, the first thing that aroused their curiosity was the world in which they lived and surrounded their whole lives.

Earth and the various life forms that fill it; The Sun, the Moon, the visible planets and stars; climates, earthquakes and eclipses. To explain all this, he realized that traditional myths and legends about the gods were inadequate and pursued something to satisfy their curiosity and intelligence. The first question that occupied these early philosophers was: neden Why was the universe made? Ve and soon this question widened: n What is the nature of everything that exists? ” This is  a form of question that we now call the metaphysics of philosophy  .

Although most of the original question has been answered by modern science, questions about metaphysics such as nasıl How come something happens that nothing will happen? Ir is not that simple to answer. Since we exist as part of the universe, metaphysics also evaluates the nature of human existence and what it means to be a conscious being. How do we perceive the world around us and can everything be independent of our perception? What is the relationship between our mind and body, and is there an immortal soul? The field of metaphysics deals with questions of existence, and ontology forms the basis of much of Western philosophy.

Once philosophers attempted to undergo general knowledge logic testing, and another fundamental question arose: “How do we know?” The study of nature and the boundaries of knowledge constituted the second important branch of philosophy, epistemology. How we gain knowledge at the center of epistemology, how we know what we know; whether some (or all) information is innate or whether we learn to live. Can we know only by reasoning? These are crucial questions for philosophical thinking since we need to rely on our knowledge to make the right reason. We also need to define the scope and boundaries of our knowledge. Otherwise, we cannot be sure that we really know what we think we know and that we are not “fooled la by somehow believing in it with our senses.

Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Year “ Introduction to Philosophy ” and Giriş Introduction to Sociology ”Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (ÖmerYILDIRIM)