Farabi’s Life and WorksJune 27, 2021
He is an Islamic thinker who lived between 870-950 years.
Farabi, whose system consists of a rational metaphysics based on Aristotelian logic, and who tried to reconcile Aristotle’s system with the Islamic belief with the help of Plotinus’ views, followed Aristotle’s line of reasoning while proving the existence of God. According to him, the objects in this world are moving, changing. Objects in the world must receive their motion from a first Mover. This first Mover is God.
In his understanding of existence, Farabi tries to explain and justify the difference and separation between the objects he calls possible or contingent beings and God, by saying that possible beings emerge from God, from the first being. According to Farabi, the first being, God, creates the whole order of existence in the universe ‘by a natural necessity’ through the overflow of existence. The universe adds nothing to God’s worth. As a perfect being, God needs nothing. According to Farabi, who explains the relationship between God and the universe by saying that the universe emerged from God as water, through my species and by necessity, the universe is also the result of God’s endless generosity. God is everything in Farabi’s system.
God is loving, loved and love. He is the knower, the known and the knowledge. Since God is everything and does not need anything, al-Farabi, at this point, applies to the knowing activity of God, which only deals with himself, for the existence of possible beings. Accordingly, creatures emerge from God as the closest ‘minds’ to God and come into existence. According to his understanding of water, species, the first mind arises from God’s knowledge of his own substance; if this mind knows God, the second mind arises. Thus, 10 minds emerge, respectively; the tenth mind is the active mind (active mind). The existence of the first mind is necessary because of God, but possible in its essence; Since the first mind knows itself with this quality, it makes the first heavenly layer from its matter and the spirit of that heavenly layer from its form (image). Thus, for each of the ten minds, a sky is formed. Matter has also sprung from God. Matter, which means uncertainty, is the most distant being from God. Active Mind is also the cause of the human soul.
In the understanding of man, Farabi says that man consists of soul and body. The perfection of the body originates from the soul, and the perfection of the soul originates from the mind. The main tasks of the soul are action, understanding and perception. According to him, there are three types of souls: vegetative, animal and human. The task of the vegetative spirit is to grow and develop the individual and to maintain the lineage, the task of the animal spirit is to take the good and stay away from the bad, and the task of the human spirit is to choose the beautiful and useful. In his understanding of morality, Farabi argues that people can distinguish between good and evil through reason. For man, the goal is happiness, and the greatest virtue is wisdom. According to Farabi, happiness, which is the highest good, is achieved through union with the active mind. For, man has to understand the universe in order to understand himself, and to understand the universe, he has to grasp the purpose of the universe. Understanding the true and highest purpose of the universe is true happiness for man. Man’s attempt to understand himself and the purpose of the universe is about doing science and philosophy. The highest perfection of the human mind brings the human mind closer to the Active Mind.
The famous Turkish philosopher Fârâbî, who transformed the philosophical thought that started with Kindî’s studies in the Islamic world into a system with his problems, method and terminology. His full name is Abu Nasr Muhammad b. The philosopher, Muhammad al-Fârâbî et-Turkî (871/72-950), was born in Vesic, near the city of Farab in Turkestan. He is called Alfarabius and Abunaser in the Latin Middle Ages. Fârâbî, who has no information about his family except that his father was the commander of Vesiç Castle, must have received a good education in Fârâb, which was an important education and cultural center of the period. The philosopher, who seems to have been a judge for a while, left his profession and hometown at an unknown date and went on an academic journey that he would continue throughout his life. It is estimated that Fârâbî, who was in important scientific and cultural centers such as Bukhara, Samarkand, Merv and Belh, arrived in Baghdad in his early forties.
It is known that while learning the intricacies of Arabic from the famous grammarian Ibn al-Sarraj, he also gave him logic lessons. A Nestorian Christian translator and commentator Abu Bishr Matta b. Logic from Yunus, Yuhanna from Harran b. He also benefited from Haylân in the field of philosophical sciences. In addition, the turmoil that occurred in Baghdad, where he wrote most of his works, caused Fârâbî to leave here in 941 or 942 and go to Damascus and from there to Aleppo. The philosopher, who returned to Damascus after a short trip to Egypt in 948, when he was quite old, completed his eighty-year life here in December 950. He was in his palace for a while with fifteen prominent statesmen for his funeral.