Friedrich Hegel’s Understanding of MetaphysicsJune 27, 2021
Kant, the founder of German idealism, said that knowledge is possible because reason itself provides a priori categories and forms and patterns of knowledge. He argued that these a priori patterns of knowledge come from man, and its content comes from the external world, the reality outside of man. Accordingly, the human mind provides forms and categories to knowledge a priori, independent of experience. The material and content of these forms is independent of man, comes from outside.
At this point, Hegel argues that the content of knowledge as well as its forms should be the product of the mind. So all the elements of knowledge are the work of the mind. According to Hegel, man experiences a world that is outside himself in knowledge, that he did not create and that is independent of man. This natural world is entirely the work of the mind, but not of the minds of us humans; The objects of our knowledge are not created by our minds.
According to Hegel, it follows that this world, the objects that make up this world and are the subject of our knowledge, must be the work of a mind other than the mind of the finite individual, man. The objects of knowledge, and thus the entire universe, are the product of an absolute subject, an absolute Mind, Mind, or Spirit. This spiritual being, which Hegel calls Spirit, Geist, Idea, Absolute, Absolute Mind, is an objective being outside of all individual, finite human souls and is nothing but God. Hegel believes that the Absolute Mind, the essence of Geist, is penetrated by the human mind, because the Absolute Mind is revealed in nature as well as in the functioning of the human mind.
That is, Geist expresses itself, according to Hegel, in nature and in the human mind. According to him, all of reality can only be understood through an Idea, an Absolute or Objective Mind, an Absolute Spirit. This Absolute Mind has been in a process of evolution throughout world history. Absolute Mind strives to be a transcendent, self-sufficient, absolutely self-conscious, fully independent being. The evolutionary process in question is the effort of the absolute Mind to become a fully rational and intelligible being.
In Hegel, who says that thought and being, logic and metaphysics are two different sides of one and the same reality, the Absolute Mind is not a static entity, but a dynamic process. This Absolute Mind is not a separate entity from the world, but the world when viewed from a special point of view. This absolute being, which Hegel describes as a dynamic process, changes and develops with movements consisting of triple steps, which he calls dialectics. Everything we call the world, existence, culture and civilization consists of the dialectical movements of the Absolute Mind consisting of the triple steps.
The Universe is an evolutionary process in which the goals or objectives of the absolute Mind are realized. This understanding of Hegel is a teleological or organic understanding. The most important thing in evolution is what comes into being, rather than what was in the beginning. The truth is in the whole, but the whole only happens when the evolutionary process is complete. The absolute is essentially a result, a completion. Philosophy, accordingly, deals with results; it has to show how one universe necessarily emerges from another. This movement takes place unconsciously in nature and even in history. According to Hegel, the thinker can be conscious of this process; he can describe this process. The thinker rises to the highest level of knowledge when he knows the meaning of the universe and catches up with the categories and operations of the universal dynamic mind. The dialectical evolution of the concepts in the mind of the philosopher, their coincident with the objective evolution of the world; The evolution and categories of subjective thought are one and the same as the categories of the universe. Thought and being are identical.