Fundamental Questions of Metaphysics about BeingJune 28, 2021
The basic questions of metaphysics about existence: “Is there an existence?”, “What is the origin of existence?”, “Is existence variable?”, “What is the main substance of existence?”, “Is existence one or many?”, “Is there an order in the universe? “Is there freedom in the universe?”, “Is the universe finite or infinite?”, “Is there purposefulness in the universe?” etc are questions.
As an example, we can consider and examine the question “Is existence variable?.” Philosophers such as Parmenides and Zeno answered this question as there is no change in existence and tried to justify it with philosophical reasoning. they worked.
According to Aristotle, the process of change in existence is the transition from the potential to the actual (real or factual as opposed to the unreal). For example, marble, an inanimate being, can never become a sculpture on its own. Marble has the potential to be a sculpture. Some reasons are needed for this capacity to be a sculpture. He states that the following reasons are needed to explain the change in a piece of marble:
* The marble from which the statue is made is its material cause.
* A statue has a shape or form that distinguishes it from other beings, which is its formal reason.
* There is an artist, a sculptor, who turns the inanimate piece of marble into a sculpture, which is the perpetual cause of the sculpture.
* The purpose of the sculpture is the purposeful cause.
Compiled by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and Grade 3 “History of Contemporary Philosophy” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook