Hegel and Idealism (Thoughtism), Hegel’s Conception of IdealismJune 28, 2021
The German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Georg Vilhelm Fridrih Hegel) also argues that existence is of the type of idea.
Hegel argues that what actually exists is the idea, the absolute spirit, the spirit, or the absolute mind, which he calls Geist (Gayst). According to him, Geist is not a static but a changing, differentiating spiritual entity. Geist is in constant formation and development. Everything that exists in the world is the product of this change. Change follows a dialectical process. The dialectic consists of three stages: thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. Nature, existence, culture, civilization, thought, etc. It occurs through the dialectical movement or change of Geist. According to Hegel, this development has a purpose, which is the full realization of the absolute spirit.
According to Hegel, there is the universal principle, which he calls dialectics, at the basis of everything. According to this principle, both nature and history and culture progress in the form of conflict of opposites (thesis-antithesis) and reaching synthesis (synthesis). This synthesis turns into a thesis over time, creating the antithesis of the thesis. A new synthesis is reached from their conflict. This process goes on and on. The absolute soul is in itself in the first step of the dialectical movement. Potentially he has not yet realized his strength (thesis stage).
In order for the absolute soul to know itself and see its possibilities, it must give itself reality. The absolute soul first realizes itself in nature (the antithesis stage). Nature or the world is the differentiated absolute spirit. The absolute spirit has become something other than itself in nature and has gone against its essence. It has contradicted itself in nature. This contradiction led to the creation of the cultural world (synthesis stage). The absolute soul returns to itself at this stage. This process goes on like this.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and Grade 3 “History of Contemporary Philosophy” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook