History of Contemporary Philosophy (19th-20th Century Philosophy)June 28, 2021
19.-20. century philosophy is a period when romanticism and idealism reached their peak in German philosophy.
In the same way, it is seen that materialism gains a new depth and stands out. In French philosophy, on the one hand, reformist thinkers such as Charles Fourier, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Claude Henri de Saint-Simon; On the other hand, it is seen that positivism became clear with August Comte. The historian Tocqueville and the sociologist and thinker Emile Durkheim, should also be added here.
19.-20. It is stated that the century is a century of history in general, which means that both the development of historical consciousness and the tendency to consider and evaluate thought and philosophy together with history have begun to gain a theoretical character. Thus, a discipline such as political theories and sociology emerged within philosophy. It would not be wrong to state the 19th century as the times when idealist philosophy in Germany, socialist thought in France, and economic theory in England developed and strengthened. Romantic thought, idealism, materialism, realism, rationalism, historicism, positivism in philosophy show themselves in this century.
19.-20. century has emerged as a period in which political ideologies came to the fore in historical terms. Socialist thought and its philosophical roots became evident in this period, while Liberalism and its philosophical roots became evident. Although the philosophical position of the 18th century Enlightenment is maintained, it can be said that it has been shaped as an orientation that is suspicious of enlightened philosophical concepts to a certain extent. The effect of the disappointments after the French Revolution in the 19th-20th centuries. in the philosophies of the century.
Main Topics of Contemporary Philosophy (19th-20th Century Philosophy):
– Emergence of 20th century philosophy
– Distinctive features and basic features of 20th century philosophy
– Phenomenology and reality-appearance problem in 20th century philosophy
– Hermeneutics and interpretation problem in 20th century philosophy
– Existentialism and existence-essence problem in 20th century philosophy
– Dialectical materialism and the problem of change in 20th century philosophy
– Logical positivism and metaphysical knowledge problem in 20th century philosophy
– New ontology and existence problem in 20th century philosophy
– Darwin’s legacy
– Who is Charles Sanders Peirce?
– Who is John Dewey?
– What is analytical philosophy?
– Kant’s classification of judgments
– Non-Euclidean geometries
– The nature of the axioms of geometry
– Who is Gilbert Ryle?
– A holistic and integrated perspective
– Who is Henri Bergson?
– Who is Martin Heidegger?
– Who is Derrida?
– Who is Gottlob Frege?
– Deviation to linguistic philosophy
– Modern logic
– Who is George Edward Moore?
– Who is Bertrand Russell?
– Who is Wittgenstein?
– Philosophers of Vienna
– Who is John Austin?
– Who is Quine?
– Who is Edmund Husserl?
– Who is Sartre?
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook