History of Political PhilosophyJune 28, 2021
Political philosophy critically deals with all its concepts and problems, for example, political problems such as the state problem, in terms of being fit for purpose.
Appropriateness: the existence of a particular entity to achieve a particular purpose. In this case, the purpose of the state is its reason for existence. Basing the reason for the existence of the state on the basis of its purpose, by saying that the state exists to mature the society morally or to ensure the happiness of the society as a whole.
When we look at the Western philosophical tradition from a historical perspective, we see many philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Augustinus, Macchiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hegel and Marx, who have put forward various views in the field of political philosophy. When we look at the political institutions of today’s Western civilization, it can be said that these institutions emerged as a result of a long historical intellectual tradition. The political philosophy, which started with the society and state theories of Plato and Aristotle in ancient times, emerged as criticisms of the purpose of the state and society, the common good and just society and state order in the thought of these philosophers. The Middle Ages, on the other hand, emerged with the idea of the state of God and revealed a theology rather than a political philosophy. In medieval thought, the aim of the earthly state should be to realize the state of God on earth. The New Age, which started with the Renaissance, introduced a secular state understanding instead of the God-centered understanding of the state. Macchiavelli laid the foundation of modern political theory by introducing the concept of the first nation-state in his work The Sovereign. Many state doctrines of modern political philosophy have tried to answer the question of the origin of the state. The efforts of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau have always been aimed at grounding the state on the basis of a contract theory. In modern political philosophy, some thinkers such as Marx criticized the state and the state was seen as a tool of oppression and exploitation of the ruling class. In contemporary political philosophy, thinkers such as Rawls and Nozick again addressed the problem of the foundation of the state and worked to solve the problem of the legitimacy of the state.
Many of the above-mentioned philosophers and various currents of thought within the tradition of Western thought, which started with the ancient Greek philosophy, have introduced many basic concepts in political theory in order to bring solutions to the basic problems of politics. Many basic problems have been the subject of philosophical thought, from the question of which should be the basis in the relationship between ethics and politics, the concept of “state of nature” and the theories of social contract regarding the emergence of the state, from the problem of democracy to the concepts of “freedom” and “equality”. The history of political philosophy in the history of thought has revealed many basic concepts that we continue to discuss today. In terms of human rights discussed today, the problem of democracy and justice, with the concepts of “justice”, “equality”, “freedom”, “war” and “peace” and “sovereignty”, “rights” and “property”, which have been put forward and discussed by various philosophers historically. ” concepts are discussed.