Human, Society and State RelationshipJune 28, 2021
Societal philosophy deals with society on its own, while state philosophy deals with the state on its own. The subject of political philosophy is both society and social order and the state. In a sense, philosophy of society and philosophy of state together form political philosophy (Dinçer 2010, p. 182). Aristotle defines man as a “zoon political” at the very beginning of his work called “Politics”.
The concept of zoon policy means “political creature” in Turkish. But Aristotle especially emphasizes that man is a social being.
What he means by this is that man is a social being, a being who establishes a state, a being who makes politics. In other words, there is an understanding of society and the state as a set of people who have come together for a specific purpose to live together. This common purpose is what is called the “common good”. When we look at the first views of society and the state in the history of Political Philosophy, it is seen that the “common good” was determined as the aim of the society and the state. For instance, Plato (427-347 BC) understood this “common good” as a just society and the happiness of the society as a whole that would arise from it. Moreover, the political action of each individual also aims at a “good”. It would fall to political philosophy to inquire whether this “good” is “good” in itself.
Human individuals live in communities because human beings meet all their material and spiritual needs in a society.
Although the concept of spiritual is the Turkish word for the term spiritual, it means “cultural” in its special meaning in philosophy. But from this concept of “cultural” one should not understand the culture of a particular society. It should be thought more in the sense of what belongs to human beings, that which is made by human beings. In this sense, it is said that science is a spiritual activity of man.
A human being is an entity that evaluates these situations in certain situations or encounters certain situations and takes action according to this evaluation. So, first of all, human is a social being who acts and as a result enters into various relations. While living in a society, a person regulates the society he lives in with the rules he sets. The activities of man as a social being in the regulation of social and political relations inevitably depend on answering the question of what man is. Since man is a social being, he is a being who establishes a state. Political theory finds the basis of existence of the state in the social existence of man. While Aristotle says at the very beginning of his work “Polica” that man is zoonpolitical, he actually says that “The state’s reason for existence is the social structure of man’s existence. The Greek adjective “politikos” (political) here emphasizes being social. Thus, Aristotle tells us that politics is an activity related to human social life. The social existence structure of man also forms the basis of the State’s existence structure. Aristotle finds the condition for a person to be virtuous in his virtuous life, therefore, according to him, the condition for a person to be virtuous is to live in society. In other words, virtue can only be realized while living in society, in a state order. Therefore, a human being is a social being only because and to the extent that he can realize the possibilities he has in a social life. Society and state order are indispensable for the emergence of human possibilities.
On the one hand, human beings appear in society as an entity that acts in various social relations, on the other hand, the state, as the entity that regulates these social relations, constitutes the legal power that binds the actions of humans. The purpose of the laws regulating the society of any state in the regulation of the society gives information about the legal system of that state. Just as there are rules and principles that regulate people’s actions and relationships in the field of ethics, there are also principles that govern and regulate the actions and social relations of people living in society, and there are rules and laws that are set according to these principles (Mengüşoğlu 2006, p. 276).
“How to live?”, which questions the principles that determine ethical human actions and what kind of life is a good life for human beings. It is a branch of philosophy that seeks an answer to the question.
In that case, the power to legislate belongs to the state forming a political union. The state as a political entity as a political whole is a legislative body. The laws made by the legislator have the power of determination in the field of social existence. Because laws come across as coercive.