Ibn Rushd’s Life and WorksJune 27, 2021
Ibn Rushd, whose real name is Muhammad, was born in Cordoba (Cordoba) in 1126 as the child of a distinguished family who had a reputation in the field of law.
Averroes, known as “co-sharah” in the Islamic world and “commentator” in the Latin world, because he commented on Aristotle’s works by adhering to his doctrine, was called Aben Roşd by the Jews in Andalusia, Aven Roşd among the Spanish, and Averroes or Averroys in Latin . (Gauthier, 1948: 1): In accordance with the tradition of the period and the region, Ibn Rushd learned reading, writing, grammar and basic religious knowledge, which was the first step of his education life, from his father. The close friendship of Ibn Rushd, who took lessons from the leading scholars of the period in different fields from law to medicine, from mathematics to philosophy, played an important role in his success in the field of medicine.
The thinker, who was intensely interested in medicine and philosophy as well as religious sciences, was appointed by the famous physician-philosopher Ibn Tufeyl in 1169, the second ruler of the Almohads, Yusuf b. When he was presented to Abdul Mu’min, he had written a work such as al-Külliyat in the field of medicine, and had reached a level where he could write annotations/comments on Aristotle’s books in philosophy. The ruler, who was especially interested in mental sciences and wanted to read the works of Aristotle, had difficulty in understanding these books and asked Ibn Tufayl to make explanations. He presented Ibn Rushd to the ruler, saying that he could not overcome this difficult task due to his advanced age and administrative duties, but that there was someone who could do it due to his talent and experience.
Almohads, the Berber dynasty that ruled in North Africa and Andalusia between 1130-1269, gave great importance and supported philosophy and mental sciences along with religious sciences.
Taking the encouragement and support of the ruler in his philosophical studies, Ibn Rushd was appointed first to the qadi of Isbiliye (Seville) and soon after to the head of Cordoba (kadi’l-kudat, kadi’l-cema’a). During his life as a judge, which lasted for more than ten years, he continued to work on the works of Aristotle. In 1182, after the departure of Ibn Tufeyl, Ibn Rushd, who was appointed as a palace physician, went to Merakeş, 73 km from Cordoba in 1195. He continued this duty until he was subjected to compulsory residence in Elîsâne (Lucena), which is far away. He passed away on 10 December 1198 (9 Safar 595), shortly after his return from compulsory residence, in Merakesh. The corpse of the philosopher, who was first buried here, was later transferred to Cordoba, where he was born, grew up and served important duties, and was buried in the family cemetery in the Ibn Abbas Cemetery. When Ibn Rushd completed his seventy-two-year life, which he lived to the full, he left behind two sons, one of whom was a doctor and the other a lawyer, and many students and many works (Sarıoğlu, 2006: 15-23):
The following statement of one of his students strikingly expresses the importance Ibn Rushd gave to science and that he was a productive thinker: “… From the time he came of age, he never stopped reading and thinking, except for two nights, one when he got married and the other when his father passed away. . What he wrote in the form of editing (tasnîf), correction (tashîh), copyright, summarization (telhîs) and explanatory notes (tahşiye) reached about ten thousand pages…”
The number of the immortal works of Ibn Rushd, which he wrote in all fields of his interest such as religious sciences, metaphysics, logic, natural sciences, zoology, psychology, astronomy, medicine, politics and ethics, and most of which were translated into Latin and Hebrew, is not known exactly. When the various lists in classical sources and modern studies and the classification of sciences made by the philosopher are considered together, the following picture emerges regarding the distribution of Ibn Rushd’s works: 1 on cedel) and 1 on sophistication (safsata); 19 in the field of physics, 5 in the field of mathematics and astronomy, among the particular-theoretic (juz’î-theoretical) sciences; 3 in the field of law (fiqh), 1 each in ethics, politics and grammar, 14 in medicine, among the applied (practical) sciences; In the field of logic, he wrote a total of 80 works, 26 of which are in the field. Here we are content to mention some of his philosophical works; some of them have been translated into Turkish: The Inconsistency of Inconsistency (Tehâfütü Tehâfüti’l-felâsife), Philosophy-Religion Relations (al-Keşf an menâhici’l-edille ve akâ’idi’l-mille, Faslu’l-makâl, ed- Damîme), Metaphysics (Cevâmi’u Mâba’de’t-tabî’a), Psychology (Telhîsu Kitâbi’n-Nefs), Basic Information on Politics (Telhîsü’s-Siyase li Eşâtun), Telhîsu İlâhiyyât li-Nikulâvus, Kitâbü’s -Semâ’i’t-tabî’î, Telhîsu Kitâbi’s-Semâ’i’t-tabî’î, fierhu Kitâbi’s-Semâ’i’t-tabî’î, Kitâbü’s-Semâ’ ve’l-âlem, fierhu Kitâbi’s- Semâ’ ve’lâlem, Telhîsu Kitâbi’l-kevn ve’l-fesâd, Kitâbü’l-Âsâri’l-‘ulviyye, Cevâmi’u’l-hiss ve’lmahsûs, fierhu Kitâbi’n-Nefs, Telhîsu Risâleti’ l-ittisal li İbn Bâcce, el-Muhtasar fi’lmantı k, Tafsîru Kitâbi’l-Burhan.