Ibn Rushd’s Understanding of Philosophy of ExistenceJune 27, 2021
When viewed as a whole, it is seen that Ibn Rushd based his system of thought on the axis of “human reality”.
According to him, every being (existence) has a special function (verb) and purpose-reason that determines its nature and distinguishes it from other beings. In this context, what determines the nature of man and distinguishes him from other beings is his mental acts.
His rationality not only distinguishes man from other beings, but also places him in a privileged position. In Ibn Rushd’s words, “man is not human with his essence (self), but because of the mind that is found with his essence, and he is more valuable than anything else on the stage of existence.” (Ibn Rushd, 1980a: 560-561): One of the minds, which our philosopher expresses as “it is nothing more than thinking and comprehending (comprehension) the order and arrangement of existing objects” (Ibn Rushd, 1980a: 526), one is theoretical (theoretical), the other is practical (Ibn Rushd, 1980a: 526). (Ibn Rushd, 1950: 60-70), it is self-evident that the purpose of human existence is to reach theoretical and practical perfection. The first of these occurs with “true/correct knowledge” (al-ilmü’l-hakk), and the other with “true/good deed” (al-alü’l-hakk). (Ibn Rushd, 1964: 241; 1992: 99-100): This is not something that will happen by chance/spontaneity, on the contrary, it is a mentality and method problem.
The points that Ibn Rushd drew attention to in terms of his scientific mentality and principles of method can be listed as follows: (a) The aim of all mental activities should be only “the desire to reach the truth” (talebu’l-hakk); In order for a person to be “a true scholar” (elâlim bima huve alim), he must not only obtain the truth, but also share it with others and enlighten them. (b) No obstacle that may be encountered on this path should hinder the truth-seeker from his path; he should fulfill his duty with the understanding of scientific responsibility. (c) The method, knowledge and experience that humanity has revealed so far in the field of philosophy and science in the name of seeking the truth should never be ignored. (d) It does not matter what belief, religion or sect they belong to, whose methods, views and thoughts can be used while searching for the truth.
All this means that, according to Ibn Rushd, the purpose of human existence is “truth”; It shows how important it is for human beings to not only obtain the truth, but also to aim it. As a matter of fact, while defending the philosophers against the criticisms of the famous thinker Ghazali, he says: “Their aim is to know the truth only. If they had nothing but this purpose, that alone would have been enough for them to be praised.” (Ibn Rushd, 1980a: 547)
In addition to these issues, which are expressed as a general introduction to the subject, Ibn Rushd uses many meanings of the term “existing” (existing) as “existing as something that has an essence and essence outside the mind, whether conceived or not by the human mind” and “external existence of this being”. According to him, it can be said that “truth” has three dimensions related to being (ontology), knowledge (epistemology) and morality (ethics), which is the dimension of being and knowledge. will be focused on.
Instead of the term “existence” (wujûd), Ibn Rushd prefers to use the term “existence” (existing, existing), which he considers synonymous with the terms “hüviyyet” (identity), “essence” (essence), “thing” and “vahid” (one). . As stated above, according to our philosopher, the term “existing” primarily refers to things that have an essence (self) and nature in the external world; secondly, it shows them the “concepts in the mind” (imagination) of their state of being. He calls the first of them “existing in the sense of essence” and the other “existing in the sense of true (faithful)”. In order to speak of the existent in the true sense, the existent in the essential sense must necessarily exist, but the reverse is not the case. In addition, while the terms “hüviyyet”, “essence” and “one”, which are synonyms of “existence”, can be used for existents (particulars) in the essential sense, these terms cannot be used for existents (universals) in the true sense. This shows that Ibn Rushd’s use of the term “existing” (existing) instead of “existence” (wujud) is based on a conscious choice: Thus, on the one hand, he thinks differently from Avicenna in the discussion of the existence-being (wujud-essence) relationship, On the other hand, he reveals his approach to the relationship between being and knowledge, or between ontology and epistemology.
Under the leadership of Farabi and Ibn Sina, the so-called Aristotelian, in reality, neoplatonist philosophy dominated the Islamic world. Ibn Rushd turned to Aristotle’s original philosophy for the first time. The main purpose of the short commentary named “Metaphysics Summary” written by the philosopher to Metaphysics is to reach the existence and its knowledge. “Our aim is to learn from Aristotle’s Metaphysics his theoretical thought about being,” he says openly. Like Aristotle, Ibn Rushd defines metaphysics briefly as “knowledge of being”. Causes of physics particular objects