Immanuel Kant and Her MetaphysicsJune 27, 2021
In traditional philosophy, the basic premises of metaphysics are often grounded in that metaphysical system. On the other hand, Kant differs from other thinkers in that he seeks the foundations of metaphysics somewhere outside of metaphysics, in the general laws of pure reason.
With Kant’s critique of pure reason, the limits of possible experience will be determined and the a priori conditions of possible experience will be revealed. In the task of revealing the possibility and source of metaphysics, determining its scope and drawing its boundaries, the basis was not facts but the possibility offered by pure reason itself.
Metaphysics means two things for Kant. The first of these is the unity of synthetic a priori principles that point to the necessary preconditions of factual experience, which makes the natural sciences possible. In this sense, metaphysics reveals the prerequisites for drawing the limit of our knowledge. In this sense, it is critical. The second type of metaphysics is absolute metaphysics as the totality of opinions that the mind inevitably puts forth about the field outside of it, when our legitimate field of knowledge is determined. It is this absolute metaphysics that Kant wants to determine as a result of his investigation whether it is possible or not. Such metaphysical arguments have turned philosophy into a battlefield, and a reform is now being proposed against it.
Philosophy tries to go beyond all possible experience and to make arguments about the field outside of experience. But in order to achieve this goal, there is no other place to go except we know it is possible; Therefore, the first task of philosophy is a systematic critique of human thought. Critical inquiry into the form and limits of possible legitimate knowledge will show what the legitimate basis might be for a possible metaphysical system. This criticism will reveal that many metaphysical speculations are based on illegitimate foundations. The view that emerges as a result of the investigation is that many great metaphysical systems are not grounded in anything.
Kant’s critique of metaphysics is a test applied to our knowledge, that is, to pure reason, by reason itself. It is also a test of the possibility of metaphysical knowledge and what is within the possibility of metaphysical knowledge. Metaphysics, if possible, will have to keep its objects of study within the bounds of possible experience. In order to reveal what metaphysics can and cannot achieve as a priori knowledge, the possibility, principles and limits of all a priori knowledge must be determined. Thus, the sources, limits and scope of metaphysics will be revealed.
Kant determined human cognition as sensitivity, understanding and reason; space and time as forms of sensibility; categories as concepts of pure understanding; He also revealed ideas as concepts of pure reason.
The subject of absolute metaphysics are the concepts of pure reason, ideas that are not related to any experience. While visions and categories produce all legitimate knowledge due to their connection with experience, ideas lead to metaphysical expressions that have no value as knowledge, since they cannot meet this condition. In this respect, according to Kant, the human mind is in a natural illusion. Absolute metaphysical questions also arise as a necessary consequence of this natural illusion. They are necessarily derived from a kind of human cognitive activity. There is no object of experience that corresponds to the ideas of the mind which are the product of this illusion.
Knowledge cannot be produced with concepts that transcend the conditions of experience and have nothing to oppose in experience. Therefore, the pursuit of knowledge in this field results in the mind producing metaphysics that have no factual knowledge value. In this respect, ideas are positioned as the founding elements of absolute metaphysics.
The object that is in the field of sensory perception and that is the subject of information in this respect, is in the field of the phenomenon, and the thing-in-itself that is assumed to be the source of this phenomenon is in the field of the noumen. In one usage, the noumenon content appears as an empty but limiting concept. But in another usage, this concept has a metaphysical content. This metaphysical content arises from the fact that the understanding exceeds the limit it sets to limit sensibility, that is, from the possibility of applying categories, which are the general forms of ideas, to things-in-themselves.
While Kant put forward the impossibility of theoretical knowledge of things-in-itself as the basic thesis, he also showed the necessary basis of such questions in the human mind. has been shown to be included.
While Kant argues that the categories that define the limits of possible experience, if extended to apply to things-in-themselves, they are informatively empty; on the other hand, their wide