John Rawls: A Theory of JusticeJune 27, 2021
His main work is “A Theory of Justice”. This book is seen as the most important book prepared in the field of political philosophy of the 20th century. After this book he wrote in 1971, he wrote Political Liberalism in 1993. In a sense, this book is a continuation of his work on the theory of justice. From his early writings on punishment in the 1950s to his writings on the foundations of righteousness (and therefore Ethics), it seems that all of his writings dealt with problems of social justice or the equal distribution of justice.
In the aforementioned “A Theory of Justice”, Rawls tries to shape the idea of ”justice as truth”. He seeks to construct a social justice idea against utilitarian moral philosophy. It bases the liberal understanding of justice shaped in this context with the principle of contracting. In a sense, this is seen as the continuation of the “social contract” tradition. Rawls’ theory of justice can be stated by these two principles. One; equality in freedoms. Two; resolution of social inequalities in the interests of the majority. Its theory and formulations have led to intense debates. In particular, the rational core of the theory, that is, why and how we prefer Rawls’s understanding of justice over others, constitutes the controversial side of the theory. Rawls thinks that the idea of justice as truth will be possible within a pluralistic and egalitarian understanding of political liberalism.
During his years as a lecturer, Rawls has taught at Princeton University, Cornell University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University. His book titled “A Theory of Justice” (A Theory of Justice, 1971) is seen as the most important book written in the field of political theory in the twentieth century.